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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 159-165

Neurological soft signs in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


Department of Psychiatry, Topiwala National Medical College and B Y L Nair, Charitable Hospital, Dr. A L Nair Road, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Henal R Shah
47, Khotachi Wadi, Girgaom, Mumbai 400004, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.99540

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Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with wide repercussions. Since it is etiologically related to delayed maturation, neurological soft signs (NSS) could be a tool to assess this. Further the correlation of NSS with severity and type of ADHD and presence of Specific Learning Disability (SLD) would give further insight into it. Aims: To study neurological soft signs and risk factors (type, mode of delivery, and milestones) in children with ADHD and to correlate NSS with type and severity of ADHD and with co-morbid Specific Learning Disability. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in Child care services of a tertiary teaching urban hospital. It was a cross-sectional single interview study. Materials and Methods : 52 consecutive children diagnosed as having ADHD were assessed for the presence of neurological soft signs using Revised Physical and Neurological Examination soft Signs scale (PANESS). The ADHD was rated by parents using ADHD parent rating scale. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed using the chi-squared test and Pearson's co-relational analysis. Results and Conclusions: Neurological soft signs are present in 84% of children. They are equally present in both the inattentive-hyperactive and impulsive-hyperactive types of ADHD. The presence of neurological soft signs in ADHD are independent of the presence of co-morbid SLD. Dysrrhythmias and overflow with gait were typically seen for impulsive-hyperactive type and higher severity of ADHD is related to more errors.



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