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    Abstract
   Introduction
   Subjects and Methods
   Results
   Discussion
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 Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 375-378
Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population


1 Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, Desh Bhagat University School of Nursing, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab, India
2 Department of Mental Health (Psychiatric) Nursing, DMC and H, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

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Date of Web Publication15-Dec-2015
 

   Abstract 

Context: Elder abuse and social neglect are unrecognized problem. Many forms of elder abuse exist including physical, psychological, financial, sexual and social neglect. Social neglect is experienced by elderly through loss of friends and family members.
Aim: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas.
Settings and Design: Study setting was a rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur of district Ludhiana.
Subjects and Methods: A sample of 200 subjects (100 subjects each from rural and urban area respectively) of age 60 years and above was drawn by cluster sampling technique and interview method was used to collect data by using Likert scale.
Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were carried out with SPSS package.
Results: Results of the present study revealed that perceived physical abuse (25%) was higher among elderly residing in rural and it was found significantly higher among female elderly who were illiterate, widow/widower and partially dependent on caregiver whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%), financial abuse (37%) and social neglect (74%) were higher among elderly residing in urban. A significant association was found between psychological abuse and educational status, which inferred that as the level of education increases perception of psychological abuse also increases. The perceived financial abuse was significantly higher among male elderly who were financially independent.
Conclusion: It was concluded that social neglect was most common, followed by psychological abuse and financial abuse among elderly residing in urban whereas physical abuse was more prevalent among elderly residing in rural.

Keywords: Elderly, perceived abuse, social neglect

How to cite this article:
Kaur J, Kaur J, Sujata N. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population. Indian J Psychiatry 2015;57:375-8

How to cite this URL:
Kaur J, Kaur J, Sujata N. Comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect among rural and urban geriatric population. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 16];57:375-8. Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2015/57/4/375/171852



   Introduction Top


The population of elderly has continued to grow. With this projected increase in the elderly population, prevalence of elder abuse is escalating. Abuse of elderly is not a new phenomenon. Elder abuse and neglect may occur in any setting such as rural or urban, private homes or within health care setting. Recognizing abuse of elderly involves a multidisciplinary approach. Nurses as a part of multidisciplinary team can play a vital role in recognition of elder abuse because access to abused person in the home is difficult, so nurses can survey the home environment and evaluates all aspects of elder abuse.[1]


   Subjects and Methods Top


This was a comparative study on perceived abuse and social neglect. A total of 200 elderly of age 60 years and above residing in a rural area (n = 100) and urban area (n = 100) of district Ludhiana were selected. Cluster random sampling technique was used to select the study area (rural area Pohir and urban area Jamalpur) and simple random sampling technique was used to select the study sample. Background information was obtained by using demographic profile sheet (Part A). Part B of tool consisted of 40 statements to assess perceived abuse which were distributed in four areas namely: Physical abuse (Q1 to Q10), psychological abuse (Q11 to Q25), financial abuse (Q26 to Q 35) and sexual abuse (Q36 to Q40) (test retest reliability of the tool was r = 0.82). Part C consisted of 10 statements to assess social neglect (test retest reliability of the tool was r = 0.97). Each statement has five options “always,” “often,” “sometimes,” “rarely” and “never” and scored as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 respectively. Research tool was given to experts for content validity and validated on target population.


   Results Top


As shown in [Table 1] sociodemographic profile of subjects showed that majority (63%) and (76%) of subjects were from age group 60 to 70 years, nearly half (45%) and (55%) of subjects were females in rural and urban area, respectively. It was found that (68%) and (37%) of subjects were illiterate in both rural and urban area, respectively. Majority of subjects (85% and 73%) in rural and urban areas were residing in nuclear families, respectively. Data show that (41%) of subjects were financially independent in a rural area and (52%) of subjects were fully dependent on caregiver in the urban area. Furthermore in rural area, more than half (51%) of subjects were having monthly income <5000/- whereas in urban area (52%) of subjects were having no monthly income. It was found that (72% and 67%) of subjects were married in both rural and urban area respectively. More than half (54%) of subjects were living with spouse and children in a rural area whereas (62%) of subjects were living with spouse and children in the urban area. Regarding their source of income, (30%) of subjects had both pension and caregiver in a rural area whereas (52%) of subjects had caregiver as a source of income in the urban area.
Table 1: Socio demographic profile of subjects residing in selected rural and urban areas N = 200

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Of 200 subjects, total of 39 subjects had reported perceived physical abuse in both rural and urban areas. Majority of subjects residing in rural area reported all forms of perceived physical abuse except pushed forcefully, locked in a room and attempted to strangulate, which were reported by subjects residing in urban [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Comparison of perceived physical abuse profile among elderly residing in rural and urban areas. *One subject may have multiple responses

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Of 200 subjects, total of 130 subjects had reported perceived psychological abuse in both rural and urban areas. Majority of subjects in urban area had reported various forms of perceived psychological abuse such as invalidation of decisions, lack of privacy, troublesome, requires to ask for permission, suicidal ideation, blamed and others make fun of their flaws when compared with those residing in rural [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Comparison of perceived psychological abuse profile among elderly residing in rural and urban areas. *One subject may have multiple responses

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Of 200 subjects, a total of 62 subjects had reported perceived financial abuse in both rural and urban areas. Majority of subjects residing in urban area had reported various forms of perceived financial abuse except receiving care in exchange of property and taken unexplained loans, which were reported by subjects residing in rural [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Comparison of perceived financial abuse profile among elderly residing in rural and urban areas. *One subject may have multiple responses

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Out of 200 subjects, total of 133 subjects had reported social neglect in both rural and urban areas. Majority of subjects residing in urban had reported various forms of social neglect except not invited by relatives, not taken to social functions and their friends do not involve them in activities which were commonly reported by subjects residing in rural [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Comparison of social neglect profile among elderly residing in rural and urban areas. *One subject may have multiple responses

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As shown in [Table 2] perceived physical abuse was higher among elderly residing in rural, and it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.01). The perceived psychological abuse was higher among elderly residing in urban, but it was found to be statistically not significant (P = 0.32). The perceived financial abuse was higher among elderly residing in urban as there is significant mean score difference (P = 0.03) and social neglect was higher among elderly residing in urban, but it was found to be statistically not significant (P = 0.32).
Table 2: Comparison of perceived abuse and social neglect among elderly residing in selected rural and urban areas n=200

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As shown in [Table 3] physical abuse was highly perceived by female elderly as the difference of mean score was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.05) whereas perceived financial abuse was significantly higher (P = 0.001) among male elderly.
Table 3: Relationship of mean perceived abuse and social neglect score with gender n=200

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As shown in [Table 4] there was no significant relationship found between perceived abuse, social neglect and age of elderly at P ≤ 0.05.
Table 4: Relationship of mean perceived abuse and social neglect score with age n=200

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As shown in [Table 5] physical abuse was highly perceived by elderly who were widow/widower as the difference of mean score was found to be significant (P = 0.001).
Table 5: Relationship of mean perceived abuse and social neglect score with marital status n=200

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As shown in [Table 6] elderly who were partially dependent perceived more physical abuse as the difference of mean score was statistically significant (P = 0.01) and Financial abuse was highly perceived by elderly who were independent as there is significant mean score difference (0.001).
Table 6: Relationship of mean perceived abuse and social neglect score with financial status n=200

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Sexual abuse

None of the subject residing in selected rural and urban areas had reported sexual abuse due to the fact that this type of abuse is hidden.


   Discussion Top


In the present study, researcher found that perceived psychological abuse (59%) and social neglect (59%) were most common followed by financial abuse (25%) and physical abuse (25%) among elderly residing in rural. These findings are consistent with study findings reported by Gaikwad et al. who conducted a study on perceived abuse among elderly residing in rural areas of Bengaluru.[2] whereas perceived psychological abuse (71%) was more prevalent form of abuse followed by financial abuse (37%) and physical abuse (14%) among elderly residing in the urban area. The findings were consistent with the study conducted in the urban community of Chennai by Chokkanathan and Lee.[3]

In the present study researcher investigated that perceived physical abuse was higher among elderly residing in rural areas, whereas perceived psychological abuse, financial abuse, and social neglect were higher among elderly residing in urban areas. These findings were supported by study findings of Vasundra(2011) which revealed that physical abuse of elderly was more common in rural areas where as emotional abuse and various forms of social neglect was most common in urban areas of Chennai.[4]

The present study revealed that perceived physical abuse and psychological abuse was higher among female elderly. Similarly, a study by Chokkanathan and Lee reported that a significantly greater number of women experienced verbal and physical abuse as compared to men.[3]

The present study findings indicate that perceived physical abuse and psychological abuse were higher among elderly who were widow/widower whereas perceived financial abuse and social neglect were higher among elderly who were never married. Similarly, a study conducted by Risco et al., in Spain they found that there was a greater risk of elder abuse in unmarried or widower.[5]

It was found that perceived financial abuse was higher among elderly who were financially independent. A similar finding were reported by Rahman and Gaafary in rural areas of Mansora city, which revealed that perceived financial abuse was higher among elderly who were financially independent.[6]

 
   References Top

1.
Dr. Ramachandra. Prevention of abuse of elderly person implications for nursing. Nightingale Nurs Times 2006;2:43-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gaikwad V, Sudeepa D, Kumar MS. A community based study on elder abuse and depression in Bangalore rural. Int J Public Health Hum Rights 2011;1:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Chokkanathan S, Lee AE. Elder mistreatment in urban India: A community based study. J Elder Abuse Negl 2005;17:45-61.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Vasundra R. 50% Chennai elderly face abuse over property. TNN; 05, 2011.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Risco Romero C, Paniagua Vicioso Mdel C, Jiménez Mendoza G, Poblador Curtó MD, Molina Martínez L, Buitrago F. Prevalence and risk factors of suspicion abuse in elder population. Med Clin (Barc) 2005;125:51-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Abdel Rahman TT, El Gaafary MM. Elder mistreatment in a rural area in Egypt. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012;12:532-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    

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Correspondence Address:
Jaspreet Kaur
Assistant Professor, Desh Bhagat University School of Nursing, Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.171852

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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