Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
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 Table of Contents    
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 57  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 430-431
Participation in activities of daily living can reduce loneliness in older adults

Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India

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Date of Web Publication15-Dec-2015

How to cite this article:
Sau K, Amin KP, Sharma A, Fakorede SO. Participation in activities of daily living can reduce loneliness in older adults. Indian J Psychiatry 2015;57:430-1

How to cite this URL:
Sau K, Amin KP, Sharma A, Fakorede SO. Participation in activities of daily living can reduce loneliness in older adults. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jun 4];57:430-1. Available from:


We agreed with Tiwari that loneliness among older adults become significant public health issue.[1] In his guest editorial, Tiwari mention three types of loneliness situational, developmental and internal loneliness.[1] We believe the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) can help to reduce the chances of loneliness. For healthy ageing and to maintain older adults mobile ADL activities plays an essential role.[2] They focus more on ADL activities compare to any other work because it is a common activity people used to do throughout their lives to fulfill their time and give meaning of their life.[3]

Activities that a person value encourage to participate and give help to look forward in daily life.[3] Valued life activities categorized as obligatory, committed and discretionary activities [3] among these obligatory and committed activity are purely ADL activities. Obligatory activities include activities necessary for survival basically known as personal ADL [3],[4] or basic ADL [4] such as bathing, showering, bowel and bladder management, dressing, eating, feeding functional mobility, personal device care, personal hygiene and grooming, sexual activity, toilet hygiene.[3],[4] Committed activities includes social role, family care and family responsibility known [4] as instrumental ADL such as care of others, care of pets, child rearing, communication management, community mobility, functional management, health management and maintenance, home establishment and management, meal preparation and clean-up, religious observance, safety and emergency maintenance, shopping.[4] When older persons able to perform all these ADL task independently with or without the help of assistive devices, surely it gives them satisfaction and felling of independence.[2] Which surely help them to reduced loneliness by providing the confidence and self-esteem. It also helps them to occupy their time by doing those activities in regular basis and help to integrate with social life. However, older adults showed age related decline with tasks even when those task are familiar, practiced and environmentally valid.[5] It is also applicable to their ADL activities also. Older adults should perform ADL as many as possible to maintain their activeness when they are not able to increase their activity level according to require guidelines within their abilities and depend upon health condition.[2] Ability to perform any ADL activity depends on client factors, performance skills, pattern of performance, and demand of that activity, context, and the environment.[4] Without detail evaluation of all aspect, it is a difficult task to address ADL related issues in elderly. Evaluation and implementation of the intervention is individualistic in nature, which makes this job a specialized one. We occupational therapist do ADL evaluation and intervention in our everyday practice because occupational therapy profession uses the term occupation to capture the breadth and meaning of everyday activity of an individual.[4] Though a multidisciplinary team approach is require to prevent loneliness where occupational therapist can play an important role to make older adults independent in their ADL activities by modifying the demand, context, environment and pattern of the activity.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Tiwari SC. Loneliness: A disease? Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55:320-2.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Guidelines on Physical Activity for Older People (aged 65 years and over). Ministry of Health: New Zealand Government; c2013. Available from: [Last cited on 2013 Dec 10].  Back to cited text no. 2
Katz PP, Morris A, Yelin EH. Prevalence and predictors of disability in valued life activities among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2006;65:763-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Roley SS, DeLany JV, Barrows CJ, Brownrigg S, Honaker D, Sava DI, et al. Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and practice, 2nd edition. Am J Occup Ther 2008;62:625-83.  Back to cited text no. 4
Dickerson AE, Fisher AG. Age differences in functional performance. Am J Occup Ther 1993;47:686-92.  Back to cited text no. 5

Correspondence Address:
Koushik Sau
Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.171857

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