Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 1066 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
Search Again
 Table of Contents
 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert
 Add to My List
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded434    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

Year : 2017  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 264-274

The use and effectiveness of pro re nata psychotropic medications in children and adolescents: A systematic review

1 University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
2 University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, Texas, USA
3 Richmond University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Staten Island, New York, USA

Correspondence Address:
Jerome Okudo
948 N Turner Avenue, Apt 4, Ontario, California, 91764
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_34_17

Rights and Permissions

Background: Published studies have not demonstrated the benefits of the practice of psychotropic PRN administration. Aim: The goal of this study is to perform a systematic review on pro re nata (PRN) psychotropic medications administration in children and adolescents and examine the safety and effectiveness of this practice in child and adolescent psychiatric care units. Settings and Design: This is a systematic review. Materials and Methods: Several databases were searched till date. One hundred and sixty-five titles and abstracts were found and a total of 14 studies, for which most were retrospective, met the absolute criteria. The patients studied were children, adolescents and patients that presented to the emergency room or admitted as inpatient. Results: Indications for admission included aggression and agitation for all the studies. Most the medications used include haloperidol, olanzapine, diazepam, and risperidone. Commonly reported adverse effects following the administration of the PRN medications were sleepiness, acute dystonia, and drowsiness. The effectiveness of PRN medications, which was reported in four of reviewed studies, ranged from 30% to 50%. Conclusion: Different effectiveness/outcome measures were used for all the studies; therefore, we could not generalize effectiveness across all the studies. Findings of the reviewed articles show the imperativeness of more research to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of PRN medications among child and adolescent populations.



Print this article         Email this article