Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 370--378

Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown


Ravi Gupta1, Sandeep Grover2, Aniruddha Basu1, Vijay Krishnan1, Adarsh Tripathi3, Alka Subramanyam4, Anil Nischal3, Arshad Hussain5, Aseem Mehra2, Atul Ambekar6, Gautam Saha7, Kshirod Kumar Mishra8, Manish Bathla9, Mukesh Jagiwala7, Narayana Manjunatha10, Naresh Nebhinani11, Navendu Gaur12, Niraj Kumar13, Pronob Kumar Dalal3, Pankaj Kumar14, Purav Kumar Midha15, Ritu Daga16, Sai Krishna Tikka17, Samir Kumar Praharaj18, Sandeep Kumar Goyal19, Shweta Kanchan20, Siddharth Sarkar6, Sourav Das21, Sujit Sarkhel22, Susanta Kumar Padhy23, Swapnajeet Sahoo2, TS Satyanarayana Rao24, Vaibhav Dubey25, Vikas Menon26, Vishal Chhabra28, Vivekanand Lahan7, Ajit Avasthi27 
1 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Psychiatry, TN Nair Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
5 Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
6 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
7 Consultant Psychiatrist, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
8 Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Maharashtra, India
9 Department of Psychiatry, MM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, MMDU, Mullana, Haryana, India
10 Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
11 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
12 Gaur Mental Health Clinic, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India
13 Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
14 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
15 Midha Neuropsychiatric Centre, Bathinda, Punjab, India
16 Vivekananda Institute of Mental Health, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
17 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
18 Department of Psychiatry, KIMS, Manipal, Karnataka, India
19 SPS Hospitals, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
20 Department of Physiology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
21 Somnos Sleep Clinic, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
22 Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
23 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
24 Department of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
25 Department of Psychiatry, People's Medical College, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
26 Department of Psychiatry, JIPMER, Puducherry, India
27 Department of Psychiatry, Fortis Hospital, Mohali, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Vijay Krishnan
Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh - 249 203, Uttarakhand
India

Introduction: To mitigate the spread of the pandemic coronavirus infection (COVID-19), governments across the world have adopted “lockdowns” which have confined many individuals to their homes. This disrupts normal life routines, elements of which are important circadian cues. The pandemic is also associated with new stressors, altered roles, and uncertainties about health and economic security, which are also likely to affect sleep. The current study is an online survey of sleep experience, routines, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, to study the alterations associated with the lockdown. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted in early May 2020 using a questionnaire circulated through social media platforms. Questions related to demographic characteristics, current and previous sleep schedules, routine, and working patterns. Insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index - 4), Stress (Perceived Stress Scale - 4), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire - 4) and physical activity (International Physical Activities Questionnaire) were assessed using standardized instruments. Results: A total of 958 valid responses were received. Compared to the prelockdown period, there was a shift to a later bedtime and waking time, with a reduction in night-time sleep and an increase in day-time napping. These effects were visible across occupational groups, but mostly affected working individuals except health professionals. Sleep quality deteriorated across groups. Reductions in sleep duration were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown is associated with changes in sleep schedule and in the quantity and quality of night-time sleep. Although these changes are associated with elevated rates of emotional symptoms, it is unclear from these cross-sectional results, whether sleep deterioration produces psychological distress, or vice versa.


How to cite this article:
Gupta R, Grover S, Basu A, Krishnan V, Tripathi A, Subramanyam A, Nischal A, Hussain A, Mehra A, Ambekar A, Saha G, Mishra KK, Bathla M, Jagiwala M, Manjunatha N, Nebhinani N, Gaur N, Kumar N, Dalal PK, Kumar P, Midha PK, Daga R, Tikka SK, Praharaj SK, Goyal SK, Kanchan S, Sarkar S, Das S, Sarkhel S, Padhy SK, Sahoo S, Satyanarayana Rao T S, Dubey V, Menon V, Chhabra V, Lahan V, Avasthi A. Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown.Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:370-378


How to cite this URL:
Gupta R, Grover S, Basu A, Krishnan V, Tripathi A, Subramanyam A, Nischal A, Hussain A, Mehra A, Ambekar A, Saha G, Mishra KK, Bathla M, Jagiwala M, Manjunatha N, Nebhinani N, Gaur N, Kumar N, Dalal PK, Kumar P, Midha PK, Daga R, Tikka SK, Praharaj SK, Goyal SK, Kanchan S, Sarkar S, Das S, Sarkhel S, Padhy SK, Sahoo S, Satyanarayana Rao T S, Dubey V, Menon V, Chhabra V, Lahan V, Avasthi A. Changes in sleep pattern and sleep quality during COVID-19 lockdown. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 13 ];62:370-378
Available from: http://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/article.asp?issn=0019-5545;year=2020;volume=62;issue=4;spage=370;epage=378;aulast=Gupta;type=0