Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
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ABSTRACTS
Abstracts of 59th Annual National Conference of Indian Psychiatric Society
Indian Psychiatric Society
January-March 2007, 49(5):1-60
  51,363 6,335 -
GUEST EDITORIAL
Suicide and its prevention: The urgent need in India
Lakshmi Vijaykumar
April-June 2007, 49(2):81-84
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.33252  PMID:20711387
  30,699 2,630 14
CURRENT THEMES
Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality?
PB Behere, AP Behere
April-June 2008, 50(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.42401  PMID:19742218
Incidence of farmers ending their lives in Vidarbha region had hit epidemic proportions recently. We adopted the psychological autopsy approach to offer some insight into the reason why these individuals resorted to such a drastic step. Suicide in farmers is public health problem and we suggested some immediate and serious interventions to prevent suicide.
  28,632 1,868 4
REVIEW ARTICLES
Vajikarana: Treatment of sexual dysfunctions based on Indian concepts
PK Dalal, Adarsh Tripathi, SK Gupta
January 2013, 55(6):273-276
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.105550  PMID:23858267
Vajikarana or Vrishya chikitsa is a one of eight major specialty of the Ashtanga Ayurveda. This subject is concerned with aphrodisiacs, virility and improving health of progeny. As per Charak Samhita, by proper use of these formulations, one becomes endowed with good physique, potency, strength, and complexion and sexually exhilarated and sexually potent. This in turn is helpful in many common sexual dysfunctions, including Infertility, Premature Ejaculation and Erectile dysfunction. The therapy is preceded by living in strict compliance with the directions mentioned in Ayurvedic classics, various methods of body cleansing and other non-medicinal strategies like sexual health promoting conduct, behavior and diet. Certain individualized herbal and herbo-mineral combinations are administered as per the nature of a person according to the Ayurveda. Many limitations need to be considered before considering the use of theses therapy like lack of scientific studies, possibilities of adulteration in the herbal and herbo-mineral combinations available in market and possibilities of unexpected side-effects etc., The article calls upon initiating research in this area so that claims of ancient Ayurvedic texts could be substantiated and vajikaran therapy may be utilized by modern medicine.
  27,012 636 1
HISTORY AND PSYCHIATRY
Institute of mental health and hospital, Agra: Evolution in 150 years
Sudhir Kumar, Rakesh Kumar
October-December 2008, 50(4):308-312
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.44759  PMID:19823622
  26,544 518 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Substance dependence: Decades apart in a teaching hospital
J Venkatesan, Stelina S.D Suresh
April-June 2008, 50(2):100-105
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.42396  PMID:19742216
Aim: The present study was done to understand the changing trends in substance dependence across decades. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study done in Department of Psychiatry in a Teaching Hospital setting. The data of patients who attended the OPD for substance dependence during the months January to December in the years 1985 & 1986, 1995 & 1996 and 2005 & 2006 were collected and analysed. Materials and Methods: A total of 839 new patients with substance dependence identified according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) (n = 839) was analysed in the present report. Study variables taken into account are alcohol dependence, polysubstance dependence which also includes alcohol, age, sex, age of initiation of substance use, duration of use, and comorbidity. Statistical Analysis: Z -test, Chi-square test, mean, percentages, standard deviation. Results: Substance dependence constituted 5.32% in 1985 and 1986, 5.02% in 1995 and 1996, and 4.05% in 2005 and 2006 of the newly registered total psychiatric patients. The variation in incidence figures across the years is statistically not significant ( P > 0.05). Among the substance dependents 2% in 1985 & 1986, 1% in 1995 & 1996 and 1% in 2005 & 2006 were females. Majority of the patients were alcohol dependent (87.2% in 1985 and 1986, 89.4% in 1995 and 1996, and 79.6% in 2005 and 2006). Polysubstance dependence showed an increasing trend and it was statistically significant. Comparison of the years 1985 and 1986 with 2005 and 2006 gives Z = 2.4, P < 0.05 (statistically significant). Comparison of the years 1995 and 1996 with 2005 and 2006 gives Z = 3, P < 0.01 (significant statistically). Number of people getting initiated to substance use in early age ( viz . 10-19 years) showed an increasing trend. People with positive family history of substance dependence started using substances early in life. (Chi-square value: 164.7, P < 0.0001, significant statistically). In polysubstance dependence comorbidity was more ( Z = 4.1, P < 0.001, significant statistically). Conclusions: Incidence of substance dependence remained the same across the two decades. But incidence of polysubstance dependence is increasing over the years. People start using substances earlier and are becoming dependent earlier in their lives in the present decade. Polysubstance dependence is correlated with greater comorbidity. Early recognition of comorbidity and its management is essential for better prognosis. Substance dependence is exclusively a male diagnosis in our population.
  20,966 1,635 1
CME
The limbic system
V RajMohan, E Mohandas
April-June 2007, 49(2):132-139
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.33264  PMID:20711399
  18,764 1,977 4
EDITORIAL
Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses
TS Sathyanarayana Rao, MR Asha, BN Ramesh, KS Jagannatha Rao
April-June 2008, 50(2):77-82
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.42391  PMID:19742217
  17,232 1,011 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Stressful life events among adolescents: The development of a new measure
Shilpa Aggarwal, H.R.A Prabhu, Aalok Anand, Atul Kotwal
April-June 2007, 49(2):96-102
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.33255  PMID:20711390
Background: Adolescence can be a stressful time for children, parents and adults who work with teens. We believe that a scale measuring the events perceived as stressful by an average Indian adolescent is necessary due to the presence of irrelevant items and absence of items related to our culture on foreign scales. Aim: This study was done to adapt and test the validity of a scale measuring stress caused due to life events in an Indian adolescent; to assess clinical value of the instrument in exploring causal relationships between stressful events and behavioral problems; and to compare the degree of overlap in stress-causing events between adolescents and their parents during the same timeframe. Materials and Methods: An adolescent life event stress scale (ALESS) containing 41 items was administered to 156 adolescents for formulation and 102 adolescents for validation. A third set of 112 adolescents was used to compare ALESS scores with child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores and parental stress scores due to life events. Results: The comparison showed a strong positive correlation with CBCL scores with a model fit (r 2 = 0.32) and a weak positive correlation with parental stress (Pearson's coefficient = 0.011) due to life events. Conclusion: Thus, a life event scale for adolescents was especially adapted to the Indian conditions.
  16,062 1,593 3
Creativity and mental health: A profile of writers and musicians
KS Pavitra, CR Chandrashekar, Partha Choudhury
January-March 2007, 49(1):34-43
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.31516  PMID:20640063
Creativity and its link with mental health have always been much speculated about. However there have been a handful of methodologically sound studies to clearly establish the relationship between creativity and mental health. The objective of the study therefore was to examine the psychiatric morbidity stress profile, coping skills and personality profile in creative versus non-creative populations. Forty writers, 40 musicians and 40 controls chosen after randomization, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria constituted the sample of the study. All the subjects were administered GHQ-28; SCAN for all GHQ positives (and 10% of GHQ-ves), Perceived stress scale and coping check list and NEO-FFI. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 11.0 version. Pearson's correlation, Chi-square and ANOVA one-way tests were used. The present study corroborated the findings of earlier studies in 70's and 80's that there was no difference between creative and non-creative groups in terms of mental illness and stress profile. The writers differed significantly from the other two groups on religious and faith domain of coping skills. The two creative groups had similar personality characteristics and scored significantly high on all dimensions compared to the non-creative group.
  15,032 930 3
CASE REPORTS
Episodic confusional state: Due to insulinoma
Jagadheesan Venkatesan, Sophie Dina Suresh Stelina
July-September 2008, 50(3):197-199
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.43636  PMID:19742181
This case report deals with 45-year-old male who came for consultation in the psychiatry department for the persisting symptoms, after consulting various departments with no relief. He had episodes of confusion with disorganized behavior, restlessness, and symptoms like talking irrelevantly once a week lasting up to 10-30 min in the preceding six months. Investigations like computerized tomography scan, electroencephalogram were not contributory. While under observation in our ward for evaluation and diagnosis, one such episode with intense sweating and clouding of consciousness was witnessed and helped in clinching the diagnosis of insulinoma. The case is reported for its rarity and as one of the causes of episodic confusional state.
  14,717 1,099 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
An overview of Indian research in depression
Sandeep Grover, Alakananda Dutt, Ajit Avasthi
September 2010, 52(7):178-188
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69231  PMID:21836676
Depression as a disorder has always been a focus of attention of researchers in India. Over the last 50-60 years, large number of studies has been published from India addressing various aspects of this commonly prevalent disorder. The various aspects studied included epidemiology, demographic and psychosocial risk factor, neurobiology, symptomatology, comorbidity, assessment and diagnosis, impact of depression, treatment related issues and prevention of depression in addition to the efficacy and tolerability of various antidepressants. Here, we review data on various aspects of depression, originating from India.
  13,843 1,744 1
CME
Moving towards ICD-11 and DSM-V: Concept and evolution of psychiatric classification
PK Dalal, T Sivakumar
October-December 2009, 51(4):310-319
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.58302  PMID:20048461
A classification is as good as its theory. As the etiology of psychiatric disorders is still not clearly known, we still define them categorically by their clinical syndrome. There are doubts if they are valid discrete disease entities and if dimensional models are better to study them. We have come a long way till ICD-10 and DSM-IV, but there are shortcomings. With advances in genetics and neurobiology in the future, classification of psychiatric disorders should improve further. The concept, evolution, current status and challenges facing psychiatric classification are discussed in this review.
  14,457 794 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug dependence: An overview and update
Swapnil Gupta, Parmananda Kulhara
April-June 2007, 49(2):85-90
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.33253  PMID:20711388
Drug dependence is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity. Various theories ranging from economic to psychological have been invoked in an attempt to explain this condition. With the advent of research at the cellular and subcellular levels, perspectives on the etiology of drug dependence have also changed. Perhaps the greatest advance has been in the identification of specific receptors for each of the drugs, their target neurotransmitter systems and the intracellular changes produced by them. These receptors also provide potential targets for treatment strategies of drug dependence. This overview attempts to present the mechanisms in the development of dependence and the newer treatment strategies for the major drugs of abuse like alcohol, opioids, cannabis, nicotine and cocaine.
  12,900 1,099 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Substance use and addiction research in India
Pratima Murthy, N Manjunatha, BN Subodh, Prabhat Kumar Chand, Vivek Benegal
September 2010, 52(7):189-199
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69232  PMID:21836677
Substance use patterns are notorious for their ability to change over time. Both licit and illicit substance use cause serious public health problems and evidence for the same is now available in our country. National level prevalence has been calculated for many substances of abuse, but regional variations are quite evident. Rapid assessment surveys have facilitated the understanding of changing patterns of use. Substance use among women and children are increasing causes of concern. Preliminary neurobiological research has focused on identifying individuals at high risk for alcohol dependence. Clinical research in the area has focused primarily on alcohol and substance related comorbidity. There is disappointingly little research on pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. Course and outcome studies emphasize the need for better follow-up in this group. While lack of a comprehensive policy has been repeatedly highlighted and various suggestions made to address the range of problems caused by substance use, much remains to be done on the ground to prevent and address these problems. It is anticipated that substance related research publications in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry will increase following the journal having acquired an 'indexed' status.
  12,144 1,766 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey
BS Chavan, Priti Arun, Rachna Bhargava, Gurvinder Pal Singh
January-March 2007, 49(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.31517  PMID:20640064
The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 5.31 years (mean S.D) among rural population and 19.75 5.4 years (mean SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached.
  12,692 1,197 3
ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPERS
Psychological effects of low intensity conflict (LIC) operations
Suprakash Chaudhury, DS Goel, Harcharan Singh
October-December 2006, 48(4):223-231
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.31553  PMID:20703341
Background: A burgeoning clinical and empirical literature has provided incontrovertible evidence that combat operations exact a heavy toll in terms of human suffering not only on combatants but also military support personnel. Though the Indian army is engaged in low intensity conflict (LIC) operations for over five decades, the psychological effects of LIC deployment on soldiers have not been adequately studied. Aims: To evaluate the psychological effects of deployment in LIC operations on service personnel. Methods: Five hundred and sixty-eight servicemen engaged in LIC operations and equal number of age- and rank-matched personnel in adjoining peace areas were evaluated with a self-made questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), Hindi PEN inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and Locus Of Control (LOC) scale. Results: Respondents from LIC area had significantly higher scores on CRSD, MAST, GHQ, IES, and general fatigue, physical fatigue, and mental fatigue subscale of the MFI in comparison to those located in other areas. Significantly higher number of respondents from highly active LIC and with more than one-year service in LIC scored above cut-off levels on CRSD, MAST and GHQ. Conclusions: The psychological status of troops was directly related both to the duration of stay and the nature of LIC area.
  12,844 641 2
Randomized controlled trial of standardized Bacopa monniera extract in age-associated memory impairment
Sangeeta Raghav, Harjeet Singh, PK Dalal, JS Srivastava, OP Asthana
October-December 2006, 48(4):238-242
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.31555  PMID:20703343
Background: Brahmi (Bacopa monniera) is a traditional Indian medicinal plant which causes multiple effects on the central nervous system. The standardized extract of this plant has shown enhanced behavioural learning in preclinical studies and enhanced information processing in healthy volunteers. Aim: To study the efficacy of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (SBME) in subjects with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) without any evidence of dementia or psychiatric disorder. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study design was employed. The subjects received either 125 mg of SBME or placebo twice a day for a period of 12 weeks followed by a placebo period of another 4 weeks (total duration of the trial 16 weeks). Each subject was evaluated for cognition on a battery of tests comprising mental control, logical memory, digit forward, digit backward, visual reproduction and paired associate learning. Results: SBME produced significant improvement on mental control, logical memory and paired associated learning during the 12-week drug therapy. Conclusion: SBME is efficacious in subjects with age-associated memory impairment.
  12,021 783 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Stigmatization of severe mental illness in India: Against the simple industrialization hypothesis
Sushrut Jadhav, Roland Littlewood, Andrew G Ryder, Ajita Chakraborty, Sumeet Jain, Maan Barua
July-September 2007, 49(3):189-194
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.37320  PMID:20661385
Background: Major international studies on course and outcome of schizophrenia suggest a better prognosis in the rural world and in low-income nations. Industrialization is thought to result in increased stigma for mental illness, which in turn is thought to worsen prognosis. The lack of an ethnographically derived and cross-culturally valid measure of stigma has hampered investigation. The present study deploys such a scale and examines stigmatizing attitudes towards the severely mentally ill among rural and urban community dwellers in India. Aim: To test the hypothesis that there are fewer stigmatizing attitudes towards the mentally ill amongst rural compared to urban community dwellers in India. Materials and Methods: An ethnographically derived and vignette-based stigmatization scale was administered to a general community sample comprising two rural and one urban site in India. Responses were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Result: Rural Indians showed significantly higher stigma scores, especially those with a manual occupation. The overall pattern of differences between rural and urban samples suggests that the former deploy a punitive model towards the severely mentally ill, while the urban group expressed a liberal view of severe mental illness. Urban Indians showed a strong link between stigma and not wishing to work with a mentally ill individual, whereas no such link existed for rural Indians. Conclusion: This is the first study, using an ethnographically derived stigmatization scale, to report increased stigma amongst a rural Indian population. Findings from this study do not fully support the industrialization hypothesis to explain better outcome of severe mental illness in low-income nations. The lack of a link between stigma and work attitudes may partly explain this phenomenon.
  11,174 904 8
AWARD PAPERS
Acute and transient psychosis: A paradigmatic approach
Savita Malhotra
October-December 2007, 49(4):233-243
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.37662  PMID:20680134
  10,802 1,273 2
REVIEW ARTICLE
The conscious access hypothesis: Explaining the consciousness
Ravi Prakash
January-March 2008, 50(1):10-15
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.39752  PMID:19771300
The phenomenon of conscious awareness or consciousness is complicated but fascinating. Although this concept has intrigued the mankind since antiquity, exploration of consciousness from scientific perspectives is not very old. Among myriad of theories regarding nature, functions and mechanism of consciousness, off late, cognitive theories have received wider acceptance. One of the most exciting hypotheses in recent times has been the "conscious access hypotheses" based on the "global workspace model of consciousness". It underscores an important property of consciousness, the global access of information in cerebral cortex. Present article reviews the "conscious access hypothesis" in terms of its theoretical underpinnings as well as experimental supports it has received.
  10,010 506 -
HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY
Psychiatric services in Jaipur: Past and present
Shiv Gautam
January-March 2010, 52(1):90-93
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.58909  PMID:20174532
  10,103 247 1
FREE PAPERS
Free Papers

April 2011, 53(5):27-72
  9,415 821 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in male subjects with alcohol dependence
Bijil Simon Arackal, Vivek Benegal
April-June 2007, 49(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.33257  PMID:20711392
Background: Chronic and persistent alcohol use is known to induce sexual dysfunction, which leads to marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. Aim: We attempted to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in a clinical sample of subjects with alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: One hundred male subjects admitted to a deaddiction centre with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome with simple withdrawal symptoms (F10.30, ICD-10 criteria) were assessed for sexual dysfunction using a sexual dysfunction checklist, constructed using items from the Diagnostic Criteria for Research [ICD-10] for sexual dysfunction. Results: Seventy-two per cent had one or more sexual dysfunction, the most common being premature ejaculation, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. The amount of alcohol consumed appeared to be the most significant predictor of developing sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is common in patients with alcohol dependence. Heavy drinking proportionately increases the risk. Clinicians need to routinely assess sexual functioning in alcoholic patients so that other factors contributing to sexual dysfunction can be ruled out.
  9,157 828 6
RESEARCH AND TRAINING
How to write a good abstract for a scientific paper or conference presentation
Chittaranjan Andrade
April-June 2011, 53(2):172-175
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.82558  PMID:21772657
Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract. The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper.
  9,372 597 3