Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 3148 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page


    Advanced search

    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Case Reports
    Different Approa...
    Reports from Abroad
    Faith Orientatio...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1010    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 14    

Recommend this journal


REVIEW ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 366-370
Psychotherapy in India

Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore - 570 004, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication15-Sep-2010


The articles that appeared in Indian Journal of Psychiatry were related to different areas of psychotherapy. Case reports dealt with a wide variety of cases. The review papers focused on the suitability of psychotherapy in the Indian context, different approaches in psychotherapy, psychotherapy training and supervision. Psychotherapy has been viewed very close to faith orientation. There were attempts to identify the indigenous concepts that are applicable to psychotherapy. Empirical studies are low in number. Concerted effort is needed to generate interest in psychotherapy, conduct more research on evidence-based therapies as well as on psychotherapeutic process variables.

Keywords: Psychotherapy, psychotherapy research, India

How to cite this article:
Manickam L. Psychotherapy in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52, Suppl S3:366-70

How to cite this URL:
Manickam L. Psychotherapy in India. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2010 [cited 2022 Sep 29];52, Suppl S3:366-70. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Psychotherapy research has entered a new phase in the new century with more than 450 different therapies. From experiential and introspective narrations, it has taken a different turn with more evidence-based research appearing in the recent years in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP), spanning the period from 1959 to 2007. [1],[2],[3] Search for psychotherapy yielded 92 results in the IJP. On the other hand, search for 'psychotherapy research' showed 31 results which included case reports, editorials as well as book reviews. However, abstract search showed no results for the key word 'psychotherapy research'. Research studies related to psychotherapy process variables like empathy did not come up while searching for psychotherapy.

The psychotherapy articles that appeared in the IJP can be considered as occurring in three different phases in relation to the theoretical allegiance it has taken - initial phase, middle phase and the current phase. In the initial phase there were more articles related to psychoanalytically-oriented concepts. In the middle phase the articles were related to different theoretical concepts-psycho dynamically oriented, humanistic and existential. In the current phase, there are articles that take more of an eclectic and integrative stance. However, all through these phases, one finds an attempt to integrate indigenous concepts in the application of psychotherapy - The one appearing as early as in 1959 [1] to 2004. [4] Analysis of the nature of articles that came up in the search showed that it included those articles that mentioned the need for psychotherapy in different form of disorders too. [5],[6]

   Case Reports Top

The case reports that appeared showed a wide variety of cases. One of the earlier reports in 1958 was related to the successful treatment of a patient with schizophrenia using psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy. [7] Rao reported a case that was treated with Existential therapy in Anxiety Neurosis without medication. [8] The other reports have used psychotherapy as an adjunct in different disorders and the application of psychotherapy with in-patients with schizophrenia. [9] Supportive Psychotherapy was used as an adjunct to treat 'factitious schizophrenia' [10] whereas insight-oriented psychotherapy was used as an adjunct to treat Dermatitis artefacta. [11] One of the case reports published was from Brazil wherein the psychopathology of flash backs in social anxiety disorder was discussed. [12] Nagaraja narrated how psychotherapy was effectively used in treating adolescents in Hysterical Twilight state. [13] Bassa analyzed the cases at child psychotherapy centers; however, there is no mention of psychotherapy among children. [14] He suggested the need for orientation of pediatricians towards psychogenesis of various disorders to help prevent 'psychosomatic disorders'. In another case report, childhood sexual abuse was brought out in five adults during the process of supervised psychotherapy. [15] Bastani reported group psychotherapy with male genital exhibitionists conducted in US. [16]

   Different Approaches in Psychotherapy: Cross Roads Top

Psychotherapists in the Indian context face various dilemmas. Even as early as in the 1950s, Nand acknowledged the 'split' of psychiatrists into biologically-oriented and analytically-oriented. [1] Later, many others later observed that psychotherapy, as practiced in the West, might be suitable only for those living in cosmopolitan cities of India and not for majority of the population. [17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24] It was felt that one has to not only use a tool that is 'alien' to the culture, but also the socio-cultural milieu, which at times appears contradictory to the basic tenets of psychotherapy. Surya and Jayaram pointed out that the Indian patients are more dependent unlike Western patients who look for integration of intra psychic processes; there is a tendency for dissociation between thinking, feeling and acting and may block the process of psychotherapy. [20] Neki discussed confidentiality and privacy in the Indian context and opined that these terms do not even exist in Indian Languages and, in the socio-cultural context; the concepts of privacy could severe people from interdependent society. [17] Therefore, he recommended family therapy or at least couple of sessions with the family members along with dyadic therapy in order to help the progress of the psychotherapy.

Verma raised objections to the applicability of the Western type of psychotherapy in India. [19] He pointed out seven distinct features of the Indian population, which may not help psychotherapy work in the Indian context in comparison to the western population. They are as follows:

  1. Dependence/interdependence.
  2. Lack of psychological sophistication.
  3. Social distance between the doctor and the patient.
  4. Religious belief in rebirth and fatalism.
  5. Guilt attributed to misdeeds in past life.
  6. Confidentiality.
  7. Personal responsibility in decision making.
He also viewed that the history of psychotherapy in India shows that it differed from the West in the following lines:

  1. It was not meant only for the sick.
  2. The patient and the therapist cannot be considered equals and hence dyadic relationship is not possible.
  3. The patient has to accept what the therapist considers as 'truth'.
  4. Everyone is not considered fit for psychotherapeutic relationship.
However, with globalization, increasing levels of education, higher sense of awareness on human rights and the wider use of electronic media even among the rural population, whether these observations stand today is a pertinent question. Varma and Ghosh, [23] in a study, of the practice of psychotherapy, on 32 Fellows of the Indian Psychiatric Society, found that short-term supportive therapy was used by majority of them. Some practiced other forms of psychotherapy including psychodrama.

On the other hand, Shamasunder held the view that psychotherapy can be effectively conducted on the Indian population. [24],[25],[26],[27] Rao practiced existential psychotherapy and substantiated that the existential philosophy is not alien to 'Eastern' culture and can be used effectively. [7] He also argued that those who took a stance against the suitability of 'Western Psychotherapy' in Indian culture were focusing their arguments based on the psychoanalysis and not on other forms of psychotherapy of Western origin and emphasized that existential philosophy is very much closer to the Indian philosophical psychology.

However, the need to give adequate importance to psychotherapy, not only in treating psychiatric disorders but also from a public health perspective, in developing countries is also highlighted. [28],[29],[30],[31]

   Reports from Abroad Top

Dreikers observed the usefulness of Adlerian psychotherapy in correcting faulty social values based on his experience in USA. [32] Cameron [33] wrote in 1961 based on his experience of practicing psychotherapy in Canada, "psychotherapy is undoubtedly the most widely used therapy within the field of psychiatry," which may not go well with the situation in India. Errazquin, in his review, observed the usefulness psychotherapy in treating psychoses. [34] Lesse, who is trained in psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy reported on specially designed psychotherapeutic procedures used in combination with drugs, useful for out patients with different psychiatric disorders. He advocated psychotherapy to be used intentionally secondary to the administration of drugs. [35] Stringham's article provides an overview of psychotherapy. [36]

   Faith Orientation and Psychotherapy Top

Psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy in India have published the influence of religion as an essential 'ingredient' of psychotherapy from the very early days. Nand compared scientific psychotherapy with 'Religious Psychotherapy'. [3] He observed 'Shivite symbol' as one fixed symbol for Indian culture. Based on the case records of Indian patients, of Hindu faith, he compared it with the phallic symbols represented at the temples at Banaras. While discussing 'total psychoanalysis,' he drew parallel between the symbols that Freud brought in from his religious and cultural traditions into psychoanalysis and explored its counter part in the Indian patients. While doing so, he suggested the need to strengthen religious therapy as well as 'race therapy' and explore the psychopharmacology of the change agents in psychotherapy. Hosseini described how Islamic principles could be used in psychotherapy. [37] Hoch too examined the way Pirs and Faquirs function as therapists and interpreted the indigenous concepts involved in their practices as 'therapists' that worked with illiterates. [38]

Psychotherapy concepts from Indian philosophical psychology: Energy from ancient tradition?

One finds that as early as in 1961 there have been attempts to integrate indigenous concepts in the application of psychotherapy. [3],[39] Nand has brought in the 'Shivite' symbols in psychoanalysis. Surya and Jayaram observed that the legend of Savitri provides the framework of psychotherapy. [20] Verma viewed psychotherapy as, the 'interpersonal method of mitigating suffering' and found its roots in the communication of Buddha; he also emphasized the use of concepts of Karma and Dharma in psychotherapy. [19] Neki used the concept of Sahaja.[18] He considers the healthy woman personality possessing- illumination, equipoise, spontaneity, freedom and harmony- a higher state of positive mental health as manifested through Sahaja. He also discusses the potential of various other Indian concepts including nirvana. One of his concepts is related to relationships in psychotherapy- Guru-chela, which he viewed as a therapeutic paradigm. [22] Patanjali yoga as a therapy had also been used. [40],[41] Wig used the term Hanuman complex [4] and the mythology for helping the patients and the doctors understand about process of psychotherapy. The therapist quality of Sahya is another concept from Indian thought that has to be explored. [42]

Psychotherapy training

There is an increased demand from psychotherapy trainers and trainees for better psychotherapy training procedures. [26],[27] However, reports on psychotherapy training are very meager. [43],[44] Rao [8] delineated five reasons for the neglect of psychotherapy training in India. He observed that:

  1. Psychotherapy is highly subjective and individualistic.
  2. Novelty of the psychological and philosophical concepts to the trainee.
  3. Impracticability of Analysis of the trainee as required by some psychoanalytically oriented approaches.
  4. Time required for training that extends beyond the training period; and
  5. Lack of inclination among trainees.
The availability of trainers who are inclined, interested and committed to impart the psychotherapeutic skills is reiterated by many psychiatrists. [8],[24],[43] The number of training centers that devote time on psychotherapy is also few. Shamasundar opined that in the absence of a wide network of specialist psychotherapy services in the country, it is imperative for the general psychiatrist to have a 'working knowledge of psychotherapy'. Psychotherapy training needs to form an essential part of psychiatric training. [24] He suggests the inclusion of psychotherapy training as a desirable component of all medical postgraduate training.

Supervision in psychotherapy

Psychotherapy training requires a strict supervision of the work of the young therapist by an experienced therapist. The young therapist in our country, many a times, is not giver adequate supervision and the final product is a therapist without adequate skills. [26] Shamasunder appealed for active, supervised training in psychotherapy for junior and trainee psychiatrists. [26] The supervising task becomes more cumbersome due to multilingual nature of the patients, trainees and trainers. Tharyan, in an experiment, showed that group supervision is feasible and acceptable in a general hospital psychiatry set up in India though it cannot replace individual supervision. [43]

Psychotherapy research

Dhairyam made an early call for psychotherapy research. [45] However, there is paucity of literature related to psychotherapy process and outcome research undertaken in our country. More than two decades ago Neki suggested that research on process variables to be initiated, in order to develop a unique perspective on psychotherapy in our country that is congruent to our culture including that of mauna.[18] There appear to be no takers to the challenge and this could be due to various factors. One of them could be very few training centers of psychotherapy in our country. Even in the existing centers, lack of sophisticated gadgets required to conduct a well-designed control study might have prevented researchers from taking up studies related to psychotherapy variables.

Case control studies on psychotherapy

Two of the earliest studies are those of Balakrishna et al. [40] and Vahia. [46],[47] Balkrishna and his associates studied the effect of Patanjali yoga on 'psycho neuroses' and found it useful in stress induced psychological disorders. It showed better results than the drug treatment. Probably Vahia's studies introducing Patanjali yoga into psychiatry research was a landmark that led many others to take up yogic asanas and related yogic concepts for empirical research in the field of psychiatry and health. [46],[47] In another case-controlled study, Kumar and Thomas assessed the effectiveness of brief psychotherapy in a sample of patients with alcohol dependence. [4] They concluded that a combination of psychopharmacological treatment with appropriate psychosocial therapies that is focused on the specific problem of the patient might provide better outcome than either of the therapies given alone. However, it was not a blind study and hence the results obtained may have been confounded by other variables too.

Psychotherapy process variables

Research on empathy was conducted on different professional groups, -psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers and lay counselors. [48],[49] Though the study was conducted using simulated client, the participants of the study perceived the simulated client similar to that of a real client. [50] Self perceived empathy and emotional empathy were also explored. [51],[52],[53] Though professionals reacted positively to audio taping of the sessions., [54] it is not widely used in training. Videotaping of the sessions involving the trainees is used. During clinical training, in psychotherapy, audio taping/videotaping of the therapy sessions are not mandatory and hence there is lack of adequate material to conduct research. Even as early as in 1974, videotapes were used in group psychotherapy sessions with male genital exhibitionists and the group dynamics is reported by an Indian researcher in USA. [16] We are yet to make use of the technology in clinical practice and research. The lack of research could be due to several factors: Time restraint, lack of facilities, inadequate supervised training and client's perspectives about secrecy, privacy and stigma. However, the impact of therapist variables on patients has not been conducted so far.

Where do we go from here?

There are very few studies on psychotherapy process or out come research in India. The reason for less number of research studies appearing in India may be a reflection of the priority of research in psychiatry in India. The course curriculum is one of the factors that could make a change in the scene. Psychotherapy is included in the curriculum of postgraduate training in psychiatry. However, there are no guidelines available at the national level on how and what skills need to be imparted. Introducing psychotherapy case submissions with adequate supervision as part of the curriculum is likely to generate the interest and improve the skills of the trainee psychiatrist. [27] Psychiatrists, who were trained through the curriculum wherein case submissions of psychological assessment were mandatory, had a better know-how of the relevance and usefulness of the psychological assessment tools. That probably led to the development as well as adaptation of new tools independently or in association with the fellow professionals. Psychotherapy supervision groups that have been found to be successful in some of the training centers may be started in other training centers too. Evidence-based psychotherapies are likely to be better accepted among the new entrants. Psychotherapy is moving towards integration of psychotherapies with divergent theoretical approaches. Unless there is exposure to different forms of psychotherapy, it may be difficult to integrate the concepts that are theoretically contradictory.

The road ahead

Practicing psychotherapy is an interesting journey and supervision of psychotherapy, though emotionally taxing on the supervisor, is all the more interesting. Those who start off the journey hardly turn back, despite being pressurized with the demands of time and energy. All may not be willing to plunge into the journey. However, those who are willing may be facilitated to begin it with adequate and appropriate supervision. More number of trained psychiatrists who can strike a balance between the biological determinants of behavior and are willing to understand the psychopathology is likely to increase the number of research related to different approaches of psychotherapy. Indian philosophical psychology is a treasure to be unearthed in understanding the 'person' as well as in helping, but lacks empirical research evidence. Agarwal wrote two decades ago, "Psychotherapy which dominated psychiatry for long seems to have become relegated into oblivion". [31] And through the journey of the IJP, so far, it is found to be true. Probably the new millennium might make the road smoother by publishing more research on evidence based psychotherapies that are suitable for the advantaged and the disadvantaged population of our country and thereby making a positive difference in the life of those who are suffering.

   References Top

1.Nand SD. Analytic psychotherapy is applied biology. Indian J Psychiatry 1959;1:130-5.  Back to cited text no. 1    Medknow Journal  
2.Suresh Kumar PN, Thomas B. Family intervention therapy in alcohol dependence syndrome: One-year follow-up study. Indian J Psychiatry 2007;49:200-4.   Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Nand SD. A comparative study of scientific and religious psychotherapy with a special study of the role of the commonest shivite symbolic model in total psychoanalysis. Indian J Psychiatry 1961;3:261-73.   Back to cited text no. 3    Medknow Journal  
4.Wig NN. Hanuman complex and its resolution: An illustration of psychotherapy from Indian mythology. Indian J Psychiatry 2004;46:25-8.  Back to cited text no. 4    Medknow Journal  
5.Sathyanarayana Rao TS, Anil Kumar MN. Agenda for specialty section in addiction medicine. Indian J Psychiatry 2008;50:229-32.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Rao KN, Sudarshan CY, Pai P. Obsessive compulsive disorder: An interface with possible psychotic features. Indian J Psychiatry 2005;47:175-8.  Back to cited text no. 6    Medknow Journal  
7.Boss M. The role of psychotherapy in schizophrenia. Indian J Psychiatry 1958;1:4-12.  Back to cited text no. 7    Medknow Journal  
8.Rao KN. Practical steps in existential psychotherapy and one year follow-up of a case. Indian J Psychiatry 1990;32:244-51.  Back to cited text no. 8    Medknow Journal  
9.Gralnick A. In-patient psychoanalytic psychotherapy of schizophrenia: Problem areas and perspectives. Indian J Psychiatry 1962;4:177-88.   Back to cited text no. 9    Medknow Journal  
10.Grover S, Kumar S, Mattoo SK, Painuly NP, Bhateja G, Kaur R. Factitious schizophrenia. Indian J Psychiatry 2005;47:169-72.  Back to cited text no. 10    Medknow Journal  
11.Tamakuwala B, Shah P, Dave K, Mehta R. Dermatitis artefacta. Indian J Psychiatry 2005;47:233-4.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
12.Kummer A, Harsanyi E. Flashbacks in social anxiety disorder: Psychopathology of a case. Indian J Psychiatry 2008;50:200-1.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
13.Nagaraj J. Hysterical twilight and fugue state in early adolescence. Indian J Psychiatry 1969;4:46-8.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Bassa M. An analysis of cases attending child psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 1962;4:139-44.  Back to cited text no. 14    Medknow Journal  
15.Jain S, Vythilingam M, Eapen V, Reddy J. Psychotherapy and childhood sexual abuse. Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:389-91.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Bastani JB. Group psychotherapy with male genital exhibitionists. Indian J Psychiatry 1974;16:316-22.  Back to cited text no. 16    Medknow Journal  
17.Neki JS. Editorial: Confidentiality, secrecy and privacy in psychotherapy: Sociodynamic considerations. Indian J Psychiatry 1992;34:171-3.   Back to cited text no. 17    Medknow Journal  
18.Neki JS. Psychotherapy in India. Indian J Psychiatry 1977;19:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Varma VK. Present state of psychotherapy in India. Indian J Psychiatry 1982;24:209-26.  Back to cited text no. 19    Medknow Journal  
20.Surya NC, Jayaram SS. Some basic considerations in the practice of psychotherapy in the Indian setting. Indian J Psychiatry 1968;4:153-6.  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Sethi BB, Trivedi JK. Psychotherapy for the economically less privileged classes (with special reference to India). Indian J Psychiatry 1982;24:318-21.  Back to cited text no. 21    Medknow Journal  
22.Neki JS. Guru-Chela relationship: The possibility of therapeutic paradigm. J Orthopsychiatry 1973;43:755-66.   Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Varma VK, Ghosh A. Psychotherapy as practised by the Indian psychiatrists. Indian J Psychiatry 1976;18:177-86.   Back to cited text no. 23    Medknow Journal  
24.Shamasundar C. Some personal reflections relating to psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 2008;50:301-4.  Back to cited text no. 24  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
25.Shamasunder C. Who needs psychiatry, who cares for psychiatry? Indian J Psychiatry 1998;40:3-30.  Back to cited text no. 25      
26.Shamasunder C. What kind of psychotherapy in the Indian setting? Indian J Psychiatry 1979;21:34-8.  Back to cited text no. 26      
27.Shamasunder C, Verghese M, Raguram RR, Jain S, Girimaji S, Seshadri S, et al. Psychotherapy programme for psychiatry residents at NIMHANS: A descriptive account. Indian J Psychiatry 1993;35:215-7.   Back to cited text no. 27      
28.Kallivayalil RA. Are we over-dependent on pharmacotherapy? Indian J Psychiatry 2008;50:7-9.  Back to cited text no. 28  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
29.Singh AR. The task before psychiatry today. Indian J Psychiatry 2007;49:60-5.  Back to cited text no. 29  [PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
30.Sriram TG. Psychotherapy in developing countries: A public health perspective. Indian J Psychiatry 1990;32:138-44.  Back to cited text no. 30    Medknow Journal  
31.Agarwal AK. Psychiatry san psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 1989;32:95-6.  Back to cited text no. 31      
32.Dreikers R. Psychotherapy as correction of faulty social values. Indian J Psychiatry 1963;5:204-10.   Back to cited text no. 32    Medknow Journal  
33.Cameron E. The essence of psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 1961;3:6-14.   Back to cited text no. 33    Medknow Journal  
34.Errazquin SJ. Psychotherapy of psychoses. Indian J Psychiatry 1961;3:83-9.  Back to cited text no. 34      
35.Lesse S. Psychotherapy in combination with tranquilizers and antidepressant drugs. Indian J Psychiatry 1978;20:120-31.  Back to cited text no. 35    Medknow Journal  
36.Stringham JA. Some experiences with psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 1966;8:8-20.   Back to cited text no. 36    Medknow Journal  
37.Hosseini SA. An elementary study of the principles of individual and group psychotherapy and mental health in Islam. Indian J Psychiatry 1983;25:335-7.  Back to cited text no. 37    Medknow Journal  
38.Hoch EM. Pir, faquir and psychotherapists. Human Context 1974;6:668-76.  Back to cited text no. 38      
39.Bhaskaran K. Meditation from a mental health prospective. Indian J Psychiatry 1991;33:   Back to cited text no. 39      
40.Balkrishna V, Sanghvi LD, Rana K, Doongaji DR, Vahia NS. The comparison of psychophysiological therapy with drug therapy. Indian J Psychiatry 1977;19:87-9.  Back to cited text no. 40    Medknow Journal  
41.Vahia NS, Jeste DV, Kapoor SN, Ardhapurkar I, Nath RS. Further experience with the therapy based upon concepts of Patanjali in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Indian J Psychiatry 1973;15:32-7.  Back to cited text no. 41    Medknow Journal  
42.Manickam LSS. Sahya: The concept in Indian philosophical psychology and its contemporary relevance. Yoga and Indian approaches to psychology. In: Joshi K, Cornelissen M, editors. New-Delhi: Centre for the Study of Civilizations; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 42      
43.Tharyan A. An experiment in psychotherapy training. Indian J Psychiatry 2000;42:142-7.  Back to cited text no. 43    Medknow Journal  
44.Kapur M, Shamasundar C, Bhatti RS. Psychotherapy training in India. Bangalore: NIMHANS Publications; No.36, 1996. (Revised Edition 2002).  Back to cited text no. 44      
45.Dhairyam D. Research need for development of psychotherapy. In: Menon TK, editor. Recent trends in psychology. Mumbai-Calcutta-Madras-New Delhi: Orient Longmans.  Back to cited text no. 45      
46.Vahia NS, Vinekar SL, DV, Doongaji DR. Some ancient Indian concepts in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Br J Psychiatry 1966;112:1089.  Back to cited text no. 46      
47.Vahia NS, Doongaji DR, Deshmukh DK, Vinekar SL, Parekh HC, Kapur SN. A deconditioning therapy based upon concepts of Patanjali. Int J Soc Psychiatry 1972;18:61-6.  Back to cited text no. 47      
48.Manickam LSS, Kapur M. Empathy in professionals and trained lay counsellors: A comparison. Indian J Psychiatry 1985;27:297-310.  Back to cited text no. 48    Medknow Journal  
49.Manickam LSS. Empathy: A comparative study of professionals and lay counsellors using hypothetical situations. Indian J Psychiatry 1990;32:83-8.  Back to cited text no. 49    Medknow Journal  
50.Manickam LSS. Emotional empathy in professional and lay counsellors. Indian J Clin Psychol 1997;24:140-3.  Back to cited text no. 50      
51.Manickam LSS. Reactions of professionals and trained lay counsellors to simulated client. J Person Clin Studies 1988;4:165-8.  Back to cited text no. 51      
52.Manickam LSS. Experienced empathy and assessed empathy in lay counsellors. J Person Clin Studies 1995;11:71-5.   Back to cited text no. 52      
53.Manickam LSS. Self-perceived empathy in professionals and trained lay counsellors. J Person Clin Studies 1991;7:37-41.  Back to cited text no. 53      
54.Manickam LSS. Reactions of professionals and trained lay counsellors to audio taped interview. Indian J Psychol Med 1986;9:74-8.  Back to cited text no. 54      

Correspondence Address:
L. S. S. Manickam
Department of Psychiatry, JSS University, JSS Medical College Hospital, Mysore - 570 004
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0019-5545.69270

Rights and Permissions

This article has been cited by
1 Cognitive Analytic Therapy: An Innovative Psychotherapy Framework in the Indian Context
Ann Treesa Rafi, Sivakami Suresh Prabalkumari
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2022; : 0253717622
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Client perspectives on perceived barriers to homework adherence in psychotherapy: An exploratory study from India
Apoorva Malik, Paulomi M. Sudhir, Pratyusha, M Manjula, Ajay Kumar, Mahendra P. Sharma
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; : 103206
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Feasibility of Using Counseling Techniques from Ramayana for Managing Negative Emotions: An Anecdotal Review and Analysis
Shree Raksha Bhide, Chhaya Kurhade, Aarti Jagannathan, Sushrutha S, Paulomi M Sudhir, BN Gangadhar
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2021; : 0253717620
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Confluence of Therapist Personal and Professional Values: How Therapist Values Become Signposts for Therapeutic Trails
Chetna Duggal, Sujata Sriram
Psychological Studies. 2021; 66(2): 167
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 A Path of Opportunity and Challenge: Perspectives of Psychotherapy Supervisors in India
Maitreyi Mondal, Bakul Dua, Chetna Duggal
Psychological Studies. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Psychotherapy research in India – A distant dream
Pragya Lodha, Avinash De Sousa
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(1): 106
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Management of bipolar disorders in women by nonpharmacological methods
SujitKumar Naik
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2015; 57(6): 264
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Forum
Verena Dudde
Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie. 2013; 12(1): 137
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts
Ajit Avasthi, Natasha Kate, Sandeep Grover
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 55(6): 136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Clinical hypnosis and Patanjali yoga sutras
Shitika Chowdhary, JiniK Gopinath
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 55(6): 157
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 The Islamic prayer (Salah/Namaaz) and yoga togetherness in mental health
ShabbirAhmed Sayeed, Anand Prakash
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 55(6): 224
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy
RakeshK Chadda, KoushikSinha Deb
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 55(6): 299
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought
L. S. S Manickam
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 55(6): 322
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Some Aspects of Empathy in the Process of Psychotherapy: Learning from Indian Tradition
Raghubir Singh Pirta
Psychological Studies. 2012; 57(4): 336
[Pubmed] | [DOI]