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 Table of Contents    
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 257-265
Attitude, practice, behavior, and mental health impact of COVID-19 on doctors

1 Department of Psychiatry, Diamond Harbour Medical College, Diamond Harbour, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Murshidabad Medical College and Hospital, Berhampore, West Bengal, India
3 ESI-PGIMSR, Manicktala, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, ESIC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
5 Northwestern Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia
6 Department of Internal Medicine, ESIC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

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Date of Submission16-Apr-2020
Date of Decision17-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance17-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication15-May-2020


Background: COVID-19, like every other pandemic, has imposed an unprecedented threat to doctors' physical and mental health. Literature in this area is sparse. The present study has been done to explore the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of doctors regarding this pandemic and how it influences their depression, anxiety, and stress level.
Materials and Methods: This online survey has been done for 10 days. Data were collected on background characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the respondents in a semi-structured pro forma, and psychiatric morbidity was measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21. A total of 152 complete responses have been received. The data were assessed using SPSS software.
Results: Out of 152 study participants, 34.9% were depressed and 39.5% and 32.9% were having anxiety and stress, respectively. Significant predictors for psychiatric morbidities were experience in health sector, duty hours, use of protective measures, and altruistic coping. Multivariable logistic regression showed most of the factors to be significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress level.
Discussion: Doctors who were working during COVID pandemic have a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity. Age and having multiple comorbidities are significant predictive factors. Adequate protective measures should be warranted. Altruistic coping and a sense of greater goal are significant among the doctor community, in this pressing time. The doctors are pushing themselves to the best of their capacity and also protecting their patients' best interest. A large-scale, multicentric study will probably give a larger picture and will guide us for better service planning and delivery.

Keywords: Attitude and practice, comorbidities, COVID-19, online survey, stress and depression

How to cite this article:
Chatterjee SS, Bhattacharyya R, Bhattacharyya S, Gupta S, Das S, Banerjee BB. Attitude, practice, behavior, and mental health impact of COVID-19 on doctors. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:257-65

How to cite this URL:
Chatterjee SS, Bhattacharyya R, Bhattacharyya S, Gupta S, Das S, Banerjee BB. Attitude, practice, behavior, and mental health impact of COVID-19 on doctors. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Dec 7];62:257-65. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Starting as a mere local transmission from the Wuhan city of China, COVID-19 has become one of the major catastrophes in the last century, affecting the global socio-political scene. In the last week of March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), which is the sixth PHEIC under the International Health Regulations after H1N1 Influenza (2009), Polio (2014), Ebola in West Africa (2014), Zika (2016), and Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo (2019).[1],[2] On February 11, 2020, the WHO has officially declared the COVID-19 as “pandemic” from the previous status of global health emergency.[3]

In the following months, Europe and the USA are devastated by its wrath and even with their highly developed health system, they are falling terribly as evident by the steep upwardly directed epidemic curve.[4] There are reports of escalating new cases and death rate, globally, and the Government of India imposed Complete Safety Restrictions. The cases have been detected from all the states, and West Bengal, being a bordering state and having its multicultural demography, is a fertile ground for the virus to spread faster, and all precautions for containment are being made from both government and nongovernmental sectors.[5],[6]

It has been learned from the past experiences, whenever situations like these arise, health-care workers come to play a major role and push their limits every day. Doctors, being in the frontline of the system, take the brunt the most. Situation is further complicated due to complete uncertainty; lack of proper guidelines; unprepared health infrastructure; and fear, anxiety, stigma, prejudice, and marginalization toward the disease. Overall, doctors have a high prevalence of mental health morbidities, but the topic is very less researched.[7] The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has thrown serious challenges to health-care professionals. This situation exposed them to higher stress level, anxiety, and apprehension. Moreover, it affects their work output which, in the pipeline, affects the health-care delivery to the whole nation.[8],[9]

There are few studies done on how situation like this affect their mental health. Previously, during severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, a study was done which found 26.6% prevalence of depression among doctors.[10] Just 2 weeks ago, a study from Wuhan, China, revealed 50.4% of depression, 44.6% of anxiety, 34.0% of insomnia, and 71.5% of distress among 1257 health-care workers.[11] There is no such published Indian study till date. To explore this gap, the plan for this study was made to assess the depression, anxiety, and stress among doctors during the corona outbreak and evaluate their attitude to this major disaster.

   Materials and Methods Top


This was a cross-sectional, observational study carried out on doctors in West Bengal. An online semi-structured questionnaire was developed, with a consent form attached to it. It started from March 28, 12:00 h, and ended on April 6, 23:59 h. The link of the questionnaire was sent through E-mails, WhatsApp, and other social media to the contacts of the investigators. The link was also posted in social media group comprised of only doctors. On receiving and clicking the link, the participants got auto directed to the information about the study and informed consent. Once they accepted to take the survey, they filled up the demographic details. Then, a set of several questions appeared sequentially, which the participants were to answer.


The questionnaire was formed on three sections: the first section was for background data which included age, gender, place of practice, qualification, specialties, duration in health-care sectors, number of patients seeing, and comorbidities; the second section comprised of a set of questions prepared by expert opinion targeting attitude and knowledge regarding COVID-19. In the third section, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS)-21 was applied. The DASS-21 is based on three subscales of depression, stress, and anxiety, and each subscale consists of seven questions each. The rating of DASS subitems such as depression, anxiety, and stress can be rated as normal, mild, moderate, and extremely severe. Each item is scored in a self-rated Likert scale from 0 (didn't apply to me all) to 3 (much or mostly applied to me) in the past 1 week.[12] The scale does not cover several domains of depression such as sleep, appetite, and sexual functions, so it cannot be used as a diagnostic tool but can be applied as an aid to diagnostic tool as well as to measure treatment response. Both English and non-English versions have high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha scores >0.7). The DASS scale has shorter version and longer version (comprising of 21 and 42 items, respectively). In DASS-21, the final score of each item is multiplied by two to obtain the final score.[13]

On piloting, it was found that it takes approximately five minutes to complete each form. Those forms with complete response were finally analysed. While collecting data, confidentiality and anonymity was maintained. It was assured that the interpretation of this study will not be utilized for commercial purposes. Anyone can opt out from the study if they don't want to submit the data in the midway of this survey. Collected data was checked for completeness and consistency. Data cleaning done and then data entered in the computer on Excel data sheets (Microsoft Excel, 2013).

SPSS version 25 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used for statistical analysis. For comparisons between the groups, t-test was used for continuous variables and Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables. Statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. Significant predictors were further analyzed using logistic regression.

   Results Top

Sample characteristics

The sample had a mean age of 42.05 (±12.19) years. Most of the participants were male (n = 119, 78.3%), practicing in urban background (n = 107, 70.3%), working in the government sector (n = 101, 66.4%), and having postgraduate qualification (n = 96, 63.2%) [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample depression

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Majority of the doctors are using a surgical mask (58.6%) and only few of them are using N95 masks (19.7%). The majority of them are using the mask for 2–6 h (47.4%) and 95.4% of the doctors are practicing hand hygiene (95.4%) at a regular interval. The doctors who participated in this survey are mostly washing their hands on an as-and-when-required basis (42.8%) by predominantly with soap and 70% alcohol-based sanitizer (77.0%). Only 24.3% of the participants have access to PPE in their setup and 11.2% are actually using it. Approximately 9.2% of the doctors are currently in quarantine. Only 2.6% of the doctors have come across a COVID-positive case. Among the participants, 86.8% are feeling proud to be a doctor while fighting against COVID-19. Unfortunately, 21.1% of the frontline warriors have been ostracized by friends, neighbor, and the society for working in the hospital for being exposed and spreading others [Table 1].


Among the 152 total samples, 53 (34.9%) doctors were depressed, among which 16 (10.5%) were mild and 22 (14.5%), 9 (5.9%), and 6 (3.9%) doctors were having moderate, severe, and very severe depression scores, respectively [Figure 1] Mean depression subscale score were found to be 8.37±8.93. [Table 2]. On bivariate analysis between nondepressed and depressed groups, statistically significant difference was observed for the associated factors such as comorbidities of the study participants (P = 0.03), daily patients' consultation number (P = 0.026), longer duty hours (P = 0.012), involvement in high-risk procedure (0.010), washing hands at a regular interval (P = 0.041), frequency of washing hands (P = 0.005), high self-esteem of profession (P = 0.040), and being ostracized (P = 0.02), whereas using N95 mask and working in this scenario had no statistical significance with the dependent variable [Table 1]. Age was significantly correlated with depression subscore.
Figure 1: Depression severity among doctors

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Table 2: Mean score of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale subitems

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Out of the total 152 study participants, 60 (39.5%) were found to have any type of anxiety and 11 (7.2%), 27 (17.8%), 10 (6.6%), and 11 (7.2%) participants were having mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe anxiety, respectively [Figure 2]. Mean anxiety subscale score were found to be 7.07±7.79 [Table 2]. Significant factors contributing to anxiety were practicing area (P = 0.047), working sector (P = 0.031), working hours (P = 0.014), high-risk procedure (P = 0.039), use of any hand sanitizer (P = 0.012), and having a history of being ostracized (P = 0.001) [Table 3].
Figure 2: Anxiety severity among doctors

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Table 3: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample anxiety

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Among the 152 total samples, 50 (32.9%) doctors were stressed, among which 20 (13.2%) were mild and 16 (10.5%), 11 (7.2%), and 3 (2.0%) doctors were having moderate, severe, and very severe depression scores, respectively [Figure 3]. Mean stress subscale score were found to be 11.92±9.66 [Table 2]. Variables related to background characteristics did not contribute to stress among the study participants, whereas washing hands (P = 0.042), altruistic feeling (P = 0.03), and perception of being ostracized (P = 0.001) had a significant association with doctors' anxiety [Table 4].
Figure 3: Stress severity among doctors

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Table 4: Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample stress

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Regression data

Taking into considerations the significant predictors and running the logistic regression, the model was found fit with Nagelkerke R2 value of 37.6%. The results revealed that being involved in high-risk procedures such as surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 6.625; 95% confidence interval [CI]) and providing service in fever clinics (AOR 3.848; 95% CI) had higher odds of depression among the study participants. In addition, the feeling of ostracized had a significant association with depression when adjusted for all other factors (AOR: 0.005; 95% CI).

For anxiety among the study participants, the significant predictors on binary logistic regression were found to be being involved in high-risk procedures such as rendering service in isolation ward (AOR 6.660; 95% CI), use of 70% alcohol-based hand sanitizer (AOR 4.058; 95% CI), and being ostracized in workplace (AOR 5.631; CI 95%); the model was found fit with Nagelkerke R2 value of 35.2%.

Those study participants found having stress also felt ostracized while working as predicted by the regression model (AOR 5.770; 95% CI), with Nagelkerke R2 value of the model being 18.6%.

   Discussion Top

Our results revealed a 35% prevalence of depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak. The stress and anxiety symptoms were found to be present in 39.5% and 33% of doctors, respectively. Earlier studies addressing the prevalence of depression among doctors reported a rate of 26.6%. That study was from Korea, done during Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak, and the sample was low, only among 64 doctors.[10] No such studies like ours have been done in India. Even if we exclude the mild subgroup of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms, still around 10%–15% prevalence rate arises, which is surely alarming.[11]

Surprisingly, 42.8% of the doctors in this survey have one or more comorbidities. Among the frontline warriors, 5.9% have all the three major comorbidities that not only show their poor overall health but also it means that they are in high-risk category when being infected by novel coronavirus. Majority of them were giving duties for 6–12 h, which is a positive finding, but at the same time, we have to keep in mind that our study is done during an early phase of the epidemic. As more time will pass, more doctors will be in quarantine and that may result higher duty hours on the working doctors, which may further worsen their overall mental health.[14] Only 39.5% of the participants were aware of the COVID-19 in December, but majority of them came to know about this in January 2020. The 62.5% doctors are doing high-risk duties (fever clinic, isolation ward etc) and that was the key indicative factor for their higher psychiatric morbidity. In April, 2020, in a study on 500 health care workers from Singapore, 14.5%, 8.9% and 6.6% participants screened positive for anxiety, depression, and stress respectively, and also and 7.7% were positive for clinical concern of post traumatic stress disorder.[15] In a country like India more psychiatric morbidity is expected which is reflected in our study.

   Conclusion Top

To conclude, as this study reveals, more awareness should be there among doctor community and further long-term study should be planned. Specific screening strategy should be applied for these frontline workers as adverse mental health condition will further affect their service delivery and subsequent patient service. Proper measures should be taken to reduce the longer duty hours so that it does not overburden the doctors.

As the COVID-19 epidemic continues to sweep, our findings will be pertinent for the planning and development of a inclusive psychological support strategy in a developing country like India.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Eurosurveillance Editorial Team. Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern. Eurosurveillance 2020;25:200131e.  Back to cited text no. 1
World Health Organization. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report-64. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 11].  Back to cited text no. 2
World Health Organization. WHO Director-General's Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-2019 Outbreak. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 11].  Back to cited text no. 3
Khan S, Siddique R, Ali A, Bai Q, Li Z, Li H, et al. The spread of novel coronavirus has created an alarming situation worldwide. J Infect Public Health 2020. pii: S1876-0341(20)30405-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
Grech V. Unknown unknowns – COVID-19 and potential global mortality. Early Hum Dev 2020;144:105026.   Back to cited text no. 5
IJMR Research Articles on Coronavirus India & COVID-19. Special Issue on Coronavirus India & COVID-19. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 11].  Back to cited text no. 6
Misra A. Doctors and healthcare workers at frontline of COVID 19 epidemic: Admiration, a pat on the back, and need for extreme caution. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020;14:255-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
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Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther 1995;33:335-43.  Back to cited text no. 12
Antony MM, Bieling PJ, Cox BJ, Enns MW, Swinson RP. Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychol Assess 1998;10:176-81.  Back to cited text no. 13
Ogawa R, Seo E, Maeno T, Ito M, Sanuki M, Maeno T. The relationship between long working hours and depression among first-year residents in Japan. BMC Med Educ 2018;18:50.  Back to cited text no. 14
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Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ranjan Bhattacharyya
29, Anandasree, Garia, Near Boral TB Hospital, Kolkata - 700 084, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_333_20

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35 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Associated With COVID-19 Among Healthcare Workers in Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study in India
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36 Factors Associated With Psychological Distress in Health-Care Workers During an Infectious Disease Outbreak: A Rapid Systematic Review of the Evidence
Fuschia M. Sirois, Janine Owens
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 11
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37 Perceptions, Experiences, and Challenges of Physicians Involved in Dementia Care During the COVID-19 Lockdown in India: A Qualitative Study
Debanjan Banerjee, Bhavika Vajawat, Prateek Varshney, TS Sathyanarayana Rao
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38 Stress, Sleep and Psychological Impact in Healthcare Workers During the Early Phase of COVID-19 in India: A Factor Analysis
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39 Psychosocial Framework of Resilience: Navigating Needs and Adversities During the Pandemic, A Qualitative Exploration in the Indian Frontline Physicians
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Aminur Rahman, Farah Deeba, Sadika Akhter, Farzana Bashar, Dilruba Nomani, Jaap Koot, Kamrun Nahar Koly, Faysal Bin Salah, Kim Haverlag, Iqbal Anwar
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42 Psychological burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder traits on medical workers under the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire survey
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43 Mental health and conspirasism in health care professionals during the spring 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in Greece
Konstantinos N. Fountoulakis, Maria K. Apostolidou, Marina B. Atsiova, Anna K. Filippidou, Angeliki K. Florou, Dimitra S. Gousiou, Aikaterini R. Katsara, Sofia N. Mantzari, Marina Padouva-Markoulaki, Evangelia I. Papatriantafyllou, Panagiota I. Sacharidi, Aikaterini I. Tonia, Eleni G. Tsagalidou, Vasiliki P. Zymara, Panagiotis E Prezerakos, Sotirios A. Koupidis, Nikolaos K. Fountoulakis, Anastasia Konsta, Eva Maria Tsapakis, Pavlos N. Theodorakis, Elias Mossialos
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44 Assessment of Psychology, Behaviour and Self-Medication Potential Among Indian People During CovID-19 Pandemic
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45 Prevalence of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder in health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis
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46 Psychological distress among healthcare providers during COVID-19 in Asia: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Siew Mooi Ching, Kar Yean Ng, Kai Wei Lee, Anne Yee, Poh Ying Lim, Hisham Ranita, Navin Kumar Devaraj, Pei Boon Ooi, Ai Theng Cheong, Ali Rostami
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47 Knowledge, attitude, practice and clinical recommendations of health care workers towards COVID-19: a systematic review
Mehran Hesaraki, Majidreza Akbarizadeh, Sudabeh Ahmadidarrehsima, Mahdieh Poodineh Moghadam, Fatemeh Izadpanah
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48 Prevalência de ansiedade em profissionais da saúde em tempos de COVID-19: revisão sistemática com metanálise
David Franciole Oliveira Silva, Ricardo Ney Cobucci, Vanessa de Paula Soares-Rachetti, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha Lima, Fábia Barbosa de Andrade
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49 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Ophthalmology Trainees in Southern India - A Prospective Observational Study
Chethana Warad, Arvind Tenagi, Arya Wakankar, Pranitha Satarasi, Umesh Harakuni, Shivanand Bubanale, Smitha K. S., Bhagyajyothi B.K
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50 Factors associated with work performance and mental health of healthcare workers during pandemics: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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51 Association Between Proportion of Workday Treating COVID-19 and Depression, Anxiety, and PTSD Outcomes in US Physicians
Danielle M. Gainer, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Nita V. Bhatt, Autumnn Merrill, Julie McCormack
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52 Global prevalence of mental health problems among healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ita Daryanti Saragih, Santo Imanuel Tonapa, Ice Septriani Saragih, Shailesh Advani, Sakti Oktaria Batubara, Ira Suarilah, Chia-Ju Lin
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53 Some of us are most at risk: Systematic review and meta-analysis of correlates of depressive symptoms among healthcare workers during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak
Cristina Crocamo, Bianca Bachi, Angela Calabrese, Tommaso Callovini, Daniele Cavaleri, Riccardo M. Cioni, Federico Moretti, Francesco Bartoli, Giuseppe Carrà
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54 Prevalence of anxiety and depression in South Asia during COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Md Mahbub Hossain, Mariya Rahman, Nusrat Fahmida Trisha, Samia Tasnim, Tasmiah Nuzhath, Nishat Tasnim Hasan, Heather Clark, Arindam Das, E. Lisako J. McKyer, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Ping Ma
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55 Geographical Appraisal of COVID-19 in West Bengal, India
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56 Analyses the effects of COVID-19 outbreak on human sexual behaviour using ordinary least-squares based multivariate logistic regression
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57 COVID-19 pandemic in India: through psycho-social lens
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58 Going the (social) distance: Comparing the effectiveness of online versus in-person Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheterization procedural training
Jessica M. Gonzalez-Vargas, Haroula M. Tzamaras, Jason Martinez, Dailen C. Brown, Jason Z. Moore, David C. Han, Elizabeth Sinz, Philip Ng, Michael X. Yang, Scarlett R. Miller
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59 COVID-19 pandemic and psychological wellbeing among health care workers and general population: A systematic-review and meta-analysis of the current evidence from India
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60 Depression and anxiety associated with COVID- 19 pandemic among healthcare professionals in India- A systematic review and meta-analysis
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61 Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Duties During Lockdown on Police Personnel and Their Perception About the Behavior of the People: an Exploratory Study from India
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62 Mental health research in the lower-middle-income countries of Africa and Asia during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review
Sujita Kumar Kar, Tosin Philip Oyetunji, Aathira J. Prakash, Olusegun Ayomikun Ogunmola, Sarvodaya Tripathy, Monsurat M. Lawal, Zainab K. Sanusi, S.M. Yasir Arafat
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63 Impact of viral epidemic outbreaks on mental health of healthcare workers: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis
Maria J. Serrano-Ripoll, Jose F. Meneses-Echavez, Ignacio Ricci-Cabello, David Fraile-Navarro, Maria A. Fiol-deRoque, Guadalupe Pastor-Moreno, Adoración Castro, Isabel Ruiz-Pérez, Rocío Zamanillo Campos, Daniela C. Gonçalves-Bradley
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Mental Health Impact of COVID-19 on Quarantine Hotel Employees in China

Yi-Man Teng, Kun-Shan Wu, Kuan-Ling Lin, Dan Xu
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65 Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on radiologists
Ganesh Hegde, Christine Azzopardi, Patrick Hurley, Harun Gupta, Naga Varaprasad Vemuri, Steven James, Rajesh Botchu
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66 Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Mental Health of Healthcare Workers in India: A Questionnaire Based Study
Ayaskant Sahoo, Swikruti Behera
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67 The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the mental health of healthcare workers in a hospital setting—A Systematic Review
Jaspinder Sanghera, Nikhil Pattani, Yousuf Hashmi, Kate F. Varley, Manikandar Srinivas Cheruvu, Alex Bradley, Joshua R. Burke
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68 Mental health assessment of frontline COVID -19 dermatologists: A Pan-Indian multicentric cross-sectional study
Abheek Sil, Anupam Das, Saurabh Jaiswal, Mohammad Jafferany, Akhilesh Thole, Rahul Rajeev, Syed Naiyer Ali
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69 Psychosocial factors associated with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder in general practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic
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70 Addressing the Mental Health Challenges of Cancer Care Workers in LMICs During the Time of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Soumitra S. Datta, Arnab Mukherjee, Soumita Ghose, Sanjay Bhattacharya, Bishal Gyawali
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71 Pandemic Anxiety: How Can I Help?
Barbara J. Limandri
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72 Investigating the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers: A Meta-Analysis
Kavita Batra, Tejinder Pal Singh, Manoj Sharma, Ravi Batra, Nena Schvaneveldt
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(23): 9096
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73 COVID-19 and Obstetrical Care: Coping With New Stress
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