Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 321 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
 


 

 
     
    Advanced search
 

 
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed23299    
    Printed69    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded1758    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 63    

Recommend this journal

 


 
 Table of Contents    
ACCELERATED RESEARCH  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 266-272
Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal: A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and JNM Hospital, Nadia, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and JNM Hospital, Nadia, West Bengal, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission17-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance17-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication15-May-2020
 

   Abstract 


Background: COVID-19 pandemic poses a unique medical challenge to the humanity in recent times. The psychological impact of the pandemic itself and the lockdown in particular is likely to be huge.
Aim: To assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal.
Materials and Methods: It was an online survey which was conducted using Google Forms with link sent using WhatsApp. A 38-item self-designed questionnaire was used for the study. The survey questionnaire would take around 5–7 min to complete. Total 507 responses were received by the stipulated time.
Results: Near about five-seventh (71.8%) and one-fifth (24.7%) of the respondents felt more worried and depressed, respectively, in the past 2 weeks. Half of the respondents (52.1%) were preoccupied with the idea of contracting COVID-19 and one-fifth (21.1%) of the respondents were repeatedly thinking of getting themselves tested for the presence of COVID-19 despite having no symptoms. Majority (69.6%) of the respondents were worried about the financial loss they were incurring during the period of lockdown. One-fourth (25.6%) and one-third (30.8%) of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had threatened their existence and they found it difficult to adjust to the new routine during 21-day lockdown period, respectively.
Conclusion: The index survey suggested that worry and sleep disturbances were common among the respondents in the past 2 weeks. The pandemic threatened the existence of the respondents to a great extent and affected their mental status negatively.

Keywords: Corona virus disease, general population, mental health, psychological impact

How to cite this article:
Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:266-72

How to cite this URL:
Chakraborty K, Chatterjee M. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population in West Bengal: A cross-sectional study. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Nov 29];62:266-72. Available from: https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2020/62/3/266/284447





   Introduction Top


The corona virus infection or COVID-19 outbreak is one of the biggest medical challenges to humankind in recent times. The outbreak of COVID-19 infection started in China in December 2019, and since then, it has spread to almost all the countries of the world by January–February 2020.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic on March 11, 2020, and as on March 31, 2020, near about 7 lakhs cases have been confirmed and more than 33,000 deaths have been reported (WHO website dated 31.03.2020 at 11:00 am Indian standard time) across 204 countries, areas, or territories and the cases are likely to rise.[1]

In India, cases of COVID-19 started to rise by the 2nd week of March 2020, and by March 31, 2020, more than 1356 cases were reported with 46 deaths.[2] Almost all the Indian confirmed COVID-19 cases have either a positive travel history or being in close contact with a confirmed COVID-19 patient (www.mohfw.in).[3] If infected or suspected cases are not quarantined properly, in the near future, there is high risk of community spread to the extent that the number of people affected will outnumber the patient–hospital bed–doctor ratio in the country. Furthermore, a sense of panic has set in among the general population aided by the increasing number of positive cases with each passing day and the rumors and myths about COVID-19 being circulated in the social media platforms. Both the central government and state governments had been issuing advisory to the people to maintain social distancing to stop the community spread. However, despite several appeals, the social distancing strategy has not been taken seriously, although this is the only possible solution to stop the spread of COVID-19. In view of this, the Prime Minister of India declared “lockdown” in the whole country starting from midnight of March 25, 2020, for next 21 days.[4] Other countries in the world have also taken similar or even stricter measures to stop community spread of COVID-19.

“Lockdown” is an emergency protocol, which basically means preventing public from moving from one area to the other. In this scenario, all educational institutions, shopping arcades, factories, offices, local markets, transport vehicles, airports, railways, metros, buses, etc., are completely shut down, except hospitals, police stations, emergency services such as fire station and petrol pumps, and groceries. Historically, lockdown had been very well documented during September 9/11 attacks in New York (3-day lockdown) and during riots in several countries.

While lockdown can be a significant and effective strategy of social distancing to tackle the increasing spread of the highly infectious COVID-19 virus, at the same time, it can have some degree of psychological impact on the public. It is well known that quarantine/isolation for any cause and in the context of a pandemic (severe acute respiratory distress syndrome/SARS, 2003) had been reported to be associated with significant mental health problems ranging from anxiety, fear, depressive symptoms, sense of loneliness, sleep disturbances, anger, etc., in the immediate few days of isolation and later had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression even after 3–4 weeks of discharge.[5] Lockdown can have different psychological impact in different age groups as well: children may feel restless as they may run out of the options to keep themselves engaged; elderly may feel that their movement has been restricted; and adults may feel burdened with household chores in the absence of housemaids/servants.

COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique opportunity to study the psychological impact of a condition, which, on the one hand, poses serious threat of a contagious illness, threat to physical and psychological integrity of a person, and in the long run a huge socioeconomic impact. It also provides an opportunity to assess the psychological impact of an administrative decision as rare as “lockdown” on general population. This study is the first of its kind to look into the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on general population after 2 weeks the disease has made an impact in the Indian subcontinent and is still at its peak.

Aim of the study

To evaluate the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the general public.


   Materials and Methods Top


It was an online survey, which was conducted using Google Forms with link sent using WhatsApp. Google Forms offers the advantage of submitting the response when maintaining anonymity. The person who devised the questionnaire can only see the responses but not the name who sent it (provided the option of name is not included in the form itself). The link was first circulated at 11:00 IST on March 29, 2020, and kept open for responses till 11:00 IST on March 31, 2020. Daily reminder was sent. The survey invitation clearly stated that the participants will have the right not to participate in the survey and participation in the survey will imply providing informed consent. The survey questionnaire would take around 5–7 min to complete. Total 507 responses were received by the stipulated time. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained on a fast-track basis.

Inclusion criteria

  • Any gender
  • Able to read English
  • Had internet connection and WhatsApp installed on their phone
  • Age more than 18 years.


Exclusion criteria

  • Unwilling and not providing informed consent for the study.


  • Instrument used

    1. Self-designed questionnaire: A 38-item self-designed questionnaire was used for the purpose of the study. The questionnaire included questions about 3 domains: (a) sociodemographic profile of the respondents, e.g., subject's age, gender, marital status, educational qualifications, profession, and residence; (b) knowledge and attitudes of the respondents towards COVID-19 pandemic; and (c) psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the respondents.


    Ethical considerations

    1. The recipients had the full liberty not to respond to the survey
    2. The personal information was kept confidential, and anonymity was maintained
    3. In case someone expressed the desire for psychiatric help, they would be guided to seek help.


    Statistical analysis

    Descriptive analysis was computed in terms of mean and standard deviation with range for continuous variables and frequency with percentage for ordinal and nominal variables. All analyses were done with the help of SPSS (Version 21, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA).


       Results Top


    A typical respondent was male (75.3%), graduate (56.2%), in private job (42%), belonged to Hindu religion (96.8%), and hailed from urban locality (40.6%) [Table 1].
    Table 1: Sociodemographic profile of the respondents (n=507)

    Click here to view


    Majority of the respondents heard about COVID-19 pandemic (97.8%) and knew what COVID-19 exactly was (98.7%). Majority (95.9%) of the respondents recognized the symptoms of COVID-19, e.g., fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sneezing; however, none recognized myalgia or body aches and pains as one of the symptoms. Near about three-fifth (77.7%) of the respondents enumerated the options to stop COVID-19, e.g., social distancing, hand washing, cough etiquette, and wearing mask. Majority of the respondents were supportive of government's decision of 21-day lockdown (96.3%) and were satisfied by the steps taken by central and state government to contain COVID-19 pandemic (61.9%) [Table 2].
    Table 2: Knowledge and attitude of the respondents toward coronavirus disease 19 pandemic (n=507)

    Click here to view


    Majority (99.6%) of the respondents did not come in direct contact with COVID-19 patients, and only a miniscule (4.5%) percentage of respondents had confirmed COVID-19 patients in their locality. Near about 7% of the respondents were associated with care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients [Table 3].
    Table 3: Psychological impact of coronavirus disease 19 pandemic on the respondents (n=507)

    Click here to view


    Near about five-seventh (71.8%) and one-fifth (24.7%) of the respondents felt more worried and depressed, respectively, in the past 2 weeks. Near about one-third (37.1%) of the respondents became more irritable in the past 2 weeks. Half of the respondents (52.1%) were preoccupied with the idea of contracting COVID-19 and one-fifth (21.1%) of the respondents were repeatedly thinking of getting themselves tested for the presence of COVID-19 despite having no symptoms. Minority of the respondents kept checking their fever with thermometer repeatedly (9.7%) and visited doctor (1.6%) on multiple occasions to rule out the symptom of COVID-19 and did routine blood tests (3.4%) to be sure that their health was normal in the past 2 weeks. Near about one-third (33.1%) of the respondents reported of having disturbed sleep-wake cycle in the past 2 weeks. One-fifth (19.9%) of the respondents were taking hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis for COVID-19 as advised by the ICMR. A worrying fact was one-tenth (10.8%) of the respondents were taking the drug without any doctor's advice. Majority of the respondents were worried more than usual about their own future as well as future of their family members (57.8%) and worried about the financial loss they were incurring during the period of lockdown (69.6%). One-fourth (25.6%) and one-fifth (34.7%) of the respondents got more depressed and worried, respectively, after reading COVID-19-related news on WhatsApp or Facebook. Majority of the respondents were spending time during lockdown either by doing household chores (62.9%) or working from home (54.8%). Only a minority of the respondents took help of psychiatry helpline (2.2%), started on antidepressant or anti-anxiety drugs in the past 2 weeks (2%), and was taking sleeping pills (4.5%) for the past 2 weeks. Near about one-tenth (9.1%) of the respondents had thyroid disorders. Majority (64.9%) of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had affected their mental status to some extent. One-fourth (25.6%) and one-third (30.8%) of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had threatened their existence and they found it difficult to adjust to the new routine during 21-day lockdown period, respectively [Table 3].


       Discussion Top


    Index survey is unique in the sense that it assessed the psychological impact of COVID-19 on general population in West Bengal 2 weeks after the cases started to rise in India from the 2nd week of March 2020 and the central government came up with the first travel advisory mandating any passenger coming from abroad should undergo 14 days of self-quarantine. As this report is being written, we are on the 6th day of lockdown period. The total number of COVID-19 cases is 1356 and 22 for India and West Bengal, respectively.[2] It has already claimed 46 lives all over India and 3 in West Bengal. This study is the first of its kind to look into the psychological impact of this exceptional situation on general population.

    The sociodemographic profile suggests that majority of the respondents were male, well educated, living in urban areas, and were in private jobs. This survey consciously made an attempt to keep the health-care professional out of the ambit, but still near about one-tenth (11.2%) were health-care providers.

    Majority of the respondents were aware of the symptoms of COVID-19 and were also aware of the precautionary steps to follow to prevent the spread of the disease. This gave the impression that public health awareness measures were percolating down to the general population. Majority of the respondents supported government's decision of 21-day lockdown and were satisfied by the steps taken by central and state government to contain COVID-19 pandemic. This showed that general people were ready to sacrifice their personal agenda for greater good.

    Near about five-seventh and one-fifth of the respondents felt more worried and depressed, respectively, in the past 2 weeks. This prevalence of excessive worrying and feeling depressed is far more than what we ordinarily get in community sample. Near about one-third of the respondents became more irritable in the past 2 weeks. Half of the respondents were preoccupied with the idea of contracting COVID-19 and one-fifth of the respondents were repeatedly thinking of getting themselves tested for the presence of COVID-19 despite having no symptoms. Considering the highly infectious nature of the disease, this particular finding was of little surprise.

    Near about one-third of the respondents reported of having disturbed sleep in the past 2 weeks. This was also in excess of the reported prevalence of nonorganic insomnia in community sample. One-fifth of the respondents were taking hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis for COVID-19 as advised by the ICMR. A worrying fact was one-tenth of the respondents were taking the drug without any doctor's advice. Hydroxychloroquine has many dreaded adverse effects, one of them being QTc prolongation, which in predisposed individuals may give rise to torsades de pointes and death. Majority of the respondents were worried more than usual about their own future as well as future of their family members and worried about the financial loss they were incurring during the period of lockdown. This comes as no surprise considering that this situation was hitherto unseen and there was every possibility that the lockdown period would be extended with the infection showing no signs of dying down. Because majority of the respondents were in private jobs, the prospect of financial loss heavily weighed on their mind. One-fourth and one-fifth of the respondents got more depressed and worried, respectively, after reading COVID-19-related news on WhatsApp or Facebook. Since the last 2 weeks, social media is being bombarded with lots of negative news related to COVID-19 (new cases, deaths, stigmatization of the cases, lack of personal protective equipment for the health-care providers, and fake news of new cases in the locality). This gave rise to negative emotion among the respondents.

    Although there have been initiatives by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Indian Psychiatric Society (IPS), the parent body of Indian Psychiatrists, and IPS, West Bengal State Branch, to help people in emotional distress at the time of COVID-19 pandemic through dedicated helpline, only a minority of the respondents (2.2%) took help through the helpline. Two-third of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had affected their mental status to some extent. One-fourth and one-third of the respondents found that COVID-19 pandemic had threatened their existence and they found it difficult to adjust to the new routine during 21-day lockdown period, respectively. This is a testimony to the fact that the current situation has been quite disruptive in terms of emotional health of the respondents concerned and required adjustment on part of them to get acquainted to new routine during the period of lockdown.


       Conclusion Top


    COVID-19 pandemic poses an extraordinary medical challenge to the humankind. The measures to contain the spread of the disease have been hitherto unseen to many of us. The socioeconomic effect of this pandemic is expected to last very long. This survey was an attempt to peek into the psychological impact of the pandemic, while it was still at peak. Index survey suggested that worry and sleep disturbances were common among the respondents in the past 2 weeks. The pandemic threatened the existence of the respondents to a great extent and affected their mental status negatively.

    Future direction

    Future studies should look into the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in a larger population which should be representative of whole of India. Furthermore, future studies can look into separately the psychological impact of “lockdown” as a social distancing strategy. Structured instruments can be used to assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic among the frontline health-care workers, COVID-19 survivors, and caregivers.

    Acknowledgment

    Dr. Sandeep Grover, Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, for his continuous inspiration for research.

    Financial support and sponsorship

    Nil.

    Conflicts of interest

    There are no conflicts of interest.



     
       References Top

    1.
    Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 1
        
    2.
    India COVID-19 Tracker. Available from: https://www.covid19india.org/. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 2
        
    3.
    Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. GOI RSS. Available from: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 3
        
    4.
    India Lockdown Live Updates: PM Modi Announces 21-day Complete Lockdown from Midnight Tonight. Times India. Available from: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/coronavirus-in-india-live-updates-pm-modi-to-address-the-nation/liveblog/74783769.cms. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 4
        
    5.
    Reynolds DL, Garay JR, Deamond SL, Moran MK, Gold W, Styra R. Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiol Infect 2008;136:997-1007.  Back to cited text no. 5
        

    Top
    Correspondence Address:
    Dr. Kaustav Chakraborty
    Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and JNM Hospital, WBUHS, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
    India
    Login to access the Email id

    Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


    DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_276_20

    Rights and Permissions



     
     
        Tables

      [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

    This article has been cited by
    1 Cross-cultural validation of the new version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale in twelve Latin American countries
    Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez, Pablo D. Valencia, Lindsey W. Vilca, Carlos Carbajal-León, Andrea Vivanco-Vidal, Daniela Saroli-Araníbar, Mario Reyes-Bossio, Michel White, Claudio Rojas-Jara, Roberto Polanco-Carrasco, Miguel Gallegos, Mauricio Cervigni, Pablo Martino, Diego Alejandro Palacios, Rodrigo Moreta-Herrera, Antonio Samaniego-Pinho, Marlon Elías Lobos-Rivera, Andrés Buschiazzo Figares, Diana Ximena Puerta-Cortés, Ibraín Enrique Corrales-Reyes, Raymundo Calderón, Bismarck Pinto Tapia, Ilka Franco Ferrari, Carmen Flores-Mendoza
    Current Psychology. 2022;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    2 Diverse Experiences and Coping During the COVID-19 Lockdown and Unlock in India
    Farheen Meraj, Japneet Kaur Makkar
    Trends in Psychology. 2022;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    3 Psychological impacts on the travel behaviour post Covid-19
    Vikram Singh, Kamini Gupta, Amit Agarwal, Neelima Chakrabarty
    Asian Transport Studies. 2022; : 100087
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    4 Physical activity to ameliorate the negative mental health effects of COVID-19-induced confinement
    Mahmoud A. Alomari, Karem H. Alzoubi, Omar F. Khabour, Lama A. Zraigat
    Informatics in Medicine Unlocked. 2022; : 100976
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    5 Fear learning and generalization during pandemic fear: How COVID-19-related anxiety affects classical fear conditioning with traumatic film clips
    Alexander Hauck, Tanja Michael, Diana S. Ferreira de Sá
    Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2022;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    6 Slovak Adaptation of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale
    Veronika Pekárová, Eva Rajcániová, Robert Tomšik
    Death Studies. 2022; : 1
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    7 Mental health during COVID-19 pandemic/Baghdad Al-Karkh
    Noora ABD-Al-Hussein Dawood Al-Jbouri, Zainab Jawad Kadhim Mashkury, Rawa Jaafar Kadhim Al-Ameri
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2022; 68(4): 738
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    8 Impact of COVID-19 on Health Seeking Behavior of Patients with Chronic Disease at Public Hospitals in Jimma Zone, South West Ethiopia
    Samira Awel, Ismael Ahmed, Desalew Tilahun, Kenenisa Tegenu
    Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2022; Volume 15: 1491
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    9 The Influence of Partial Curfew on the Quality of life in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Heba AlNujaidi, Asma Alfayez, Atheer Alsaif, Demah Alsalman, Sama’a Almubarak, Salma Almulla
    The Open Public Health Journal. 2022; 15(1)
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    10 Self-Reported Mental Health and Lifestyle Behaviour During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Czech Population: Evidence From Two Cross-Sectional Surveys
    Andrea Dalecká, Hana Tomášková, Hana Šlachtová, Dagmar Skýbová, Ratislav Mad’ar
    International Journal of Public Health. 2022; 67
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    11 Designing the Well-Being of Romanians by Achieving Mental Health with Digital Methods and Public Health Promotion
    Gabriel Bratucu, Andra Ioana Maria Tudor, Adriana Veronica Litra, Eliza Nichifor, Ioana Bianca Chi?u, Tamara-Oana Bratucu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(13): 7868
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    12 Depression, anxiety, and stress among general public of india during post-COVID-19 second wave: A web-based cross-sectional survey
    JyothiSuchitra Mekala, Narayana Goruntla, Bharathi Nayaka, Kavyasree Velpula, Raghavendra Biswas, KasturiViswanathasetty Veerabhadrappa, Bhupalam Pradeepkumar
    Indian Journal of Medical Specialities. 2022; 0(0): 0
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    13 Behavioural and Emotional difficulties in School children during COVID 19 pandemic using narrowband dimensions of SDQ: Online survey from North? East India
    Subhashish Nath, Vijay Gogoi, SiddeswaraBargur Linganna, Jita Baruah, Bikram Sutradhar
    Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 2022; 31(2): 207
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    14 Mental health impact of COVID-19 pandemic in India: A web-based community survey
    Mamta Singh, Nitin Raut, Shipra Singh
    Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth. 2022; 0(0): 0
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    15 Mild anxiety and depression disorders: Unusual reactions to COVID-19 lockdown in caregivers of older adults attending a psychogeriatric clinic in Southwest Nigeria
    OlufisayoOluyinka Elugbadebo, Olusegun Baiyewu
    Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2022; 29(1): 13
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    16 Demand of COVID-19 medicines without prescription among community pharmacies in Jodhpur, India: Findings and implications
    Siddhartha Dutta, RimpleJ Kaur, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Sneha Ambwani, Brian Godman, PallaviA Jha, Sanchi Sukhija, SumanS Venkatesh, Halyna Lugova, Salequl Islam, Jaykaran Charan, Mainul Haque
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2022; 11(2): 503
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    17 Mental health symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in developing countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Jiyao Chen, Stephen X Zhang, Allen Yin, Jaime A Yáńez
    Journal of Global Health. 2022; 12
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    18 Sleep Quality in the Indian Adult Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Sukriti Banthiya, Sucheta Sharma, Divya Jahagirdar, Vinay Jahagirdar, Manisha Garg, H.K Sahadev
    Cureus. 2021;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    19 Fear of COVID-19 and its impact on quality of life during the lockdown situation among the teaching faculty of a health university in India
    Pradnya Kakodkar, Sonal Kale, Ramesh Bhonde, NJ Pawar
    Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth. 2021; 14(5): 502
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    20 COVID-19 and subsequent lockdown: Adverse effects on psychological health of Indian women
    SaritaK Sharma, UjwalaU Ukey, PragatiG Rathod, Suresh Ughade
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(11): 4102
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    21 Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about COVID-19 among Kashmiri population: A cross-sectional study
    BushraSyed Imtiyaz, Chahat Jamwal, Arshad Hussain, Fazle Roub, Rabbanie Tariq, Imran Qayoom, Juvaria Syed, Mahvish Renzu
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(4): 383
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    22 COVID-19, Pandemi Sürecinin Psikolojik Etkileri ve Duygusal Yeme Davranisi
    Aybüke Gülin GÜNGÖR, Yahya ÖZDOGAN
    Türkiye Saglik Bilimleri ve Arastirmalari Dergisi. 2021; : 34
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    23 Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on lifestyle behaviour: A review of studies published in India
    Dimple Rawat, Vivek Dixit, Sarthak Gulati, Shreya Gulati, Arti Gulati
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021; 15(1): 331
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    24 Psychological impact of COVID-19 on medical interns – Findings from a nationwide survey
    ChandrashekarB Huded, SmithaLamiya Rasquinha, Pradyumna Rao
    Journal of Education and Health Promotion. 2021; 10(1): 336
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    25 STRESS TRAP OF COVID-19 - A WEB-BASED STUDY
    Seema Jain, Komal Anand, Vertika Agarwal, Harivansh Chopra, Tanveer Bano, Arun Kumar, Ganesh Singh, Chhaya Mittal, Neelam Gautam
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 2021; : 34
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    26 ANXIETY AND OBSESSION ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 PANDEMIC AMONG GENERAL POPULATION.
    Lija R Nath, Haseena T.A
    GLOBAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS. 2021; : 20
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    27 KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS COVID-19 AMONG ELDERLY RESIDING IN SELECTED AREA OF URBAN AND RURAL COMMUNITY, KAMRUP, ASSAM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
    Mahmuda Akhtar, Bijaya Thongam
    INDIAN JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH. 2021; : 59
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    28 Psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents in an urban setting in Andhra Pradesh
    Shvetha Chilukuri, Srinivas Singisetti, Srikrishna Nukala, Archana Vinnakota, Abhilash Garapati, Vidya Sanapala, LaxmanRao Nambaru
    Archives of Mental Health. 2021; 0(0): 0
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    29 A cross-sectional study of psychological distress among doctors' spouses during COVID-19
    SripathiSanthosh Goud, Vishal Indla, Manjiri Deshpande, IndlaRamasubba Reddy
    Archives of Mental Health. 2021; 22(1): 68
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    30 Hunger, fear, and isolation – A qualitative analysis of media reports of COVID-19-related suicides in India
    Madhumitha Balaji, Vikram Patel
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(5): 467
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    31 Students’ Perceptions of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication Behaviors during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Gabriel-Mugurel Dragomir, Marcela Alina Farca?iu, Simona ?imon
    Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(18): 8282
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    32 Experience of Healthcare Access in Australia during the First Year of the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Tegan Podubinski, Louise Townsin, Sandra C. Thompson, Anna Tynan, Geoff Argus
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(20): 10687
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    33 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Older Adults: Rapid Review
    Audrey Lebrasseur, Noémie Fortin-Bédard, Josiane Lettre, Emilie Raymond, Eve-Line Bussičres, Nolwenn Lapierre, Julie Faieta, Claude Vincent, Louise Duchesne, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Eric Gagnon, André Tourigny, Marie-Čve Lamontagne, François Routhier
    JMIR Aging. 2021; 4(2): e26474
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    34 Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of College Students in India: Cross-sectional Web-Based Study
    Amar Prashad Chaudhary, Narayan Sah Sonar, Jamuna TR, Moumita Banerjee, Shailesh Yadav
    JMIRx Med. 2021; 2(3): e28158
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    35 Impact of COVID-19 on assisted reproductive technologies and its multifacet influence on global bioeconomy
    Olugbemi Tope Olaniyan, Charles O. Adetunji, Gloria E. Okotie, Olorunsola Adeyomoye, Osikemekha A. Anani, Pratap Chand Mali
    Journal of Reproductive Healthcare and Medicine. 2021; 2: 92
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    36 Pandemi Döneminde Ögretmenlerin Is Yasami: Covid-19 Fobisi, Isten Ayrilma Niyeti ve Psikolojik Sermaye
    Hikmet Hakan COSKUN, Merve MAMACI
    OPUS Uluslararasi Toplum Arastirmalari Dergisi. 2021;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    37 Insomnia in COVID-19 Survivors: A Cross Sectional Study Among Healthcare Workers
    Nalakath A. Uvais, Shamsudeen Moideen, Bishurul Hafi, Sooraj Rajagopal, V. Maheshwari, Tasneem Abdul Gafoor
    Chronobiology in Medicine. 2021; 3(3): 102
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    38 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on the Psychological Status of Palestinian Adults in the West Bank, Palestine; A Cross-Sectional Study
    Imad T. Asmar, Hani Naseef, Nimeh Al-Shami, Maram K. Jaghama, Abdallah D. Abukhalil, Areefa A. Karsh, Fuad A. AlFayyah, Ro'a M. Dagher
    The Open Psychology Journal. 2021; 14(1): 227
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    39 Validation and Assessment of COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index among Indian Dental Professionals
    Ramesh Nagarajappa, Ipsita Mahapatra, Dharmashree Satyarup, Sharmistha Mohanty
    Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada. 2021; 21
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    40 Burden of Sleep Disturbance During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review
    Ying Ni Lin, Zhuo Ran Liu, Shi Qi Li, Chuan Xiang Li, Liu Zhang, Ning Li, Xian Wen Sun, Hong Peng Li, Jian Ping Zhou, Qing Yun Li
    Nature and Science of Sleep. 2021; Volume 13: 933
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    41 Peritraumatic Reactions Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic Among the Tunisian General Population
    Mariem Turki, Wiem Bouattour, Sahar Ellouze, Fadoua Charfeddine, Neila Messedi, Lobna Aribi, Najla Halouani, Jihene Aloulou
    Journal of Asian and African Studies. 2021; 56(8): 1899
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    42 Biopsychosocial factors linked with overall well-being of students and educators during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Saher Al-Sabbah, Amani Darwish, Najwan Fares, James Barnes, Jehad Ali Almomani, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez
    Cogent Psychology. 2021; 8(1): 1875550
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    43 Impact of COVID-19 on food outlets: symmetric or asymmetric? A case study of Amritsar
    Dilpreet Kaur Dhillon, Kuldip Kaur
    Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights. 2021; ahead-of-p(ahead-of-p)
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    44 An exploration of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) restrictions on marginalised groups in the UK
    C. Eshareturi, A. Wareham, M. Rattray, M. Haith-Cooper, R. McCarthy
    Public Health. 2021; 197: 6
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    45 People with dyssomnia showed increased vulnerability to CoVID-19 pandemic: a questionnaire-based study exploring the patterns and predictors of sleep quality using the latent class analysis technique in Indian population
    Arathi Radhakrishnan, Ramajayam Govindaraj, Arun Sasidharan, P.N. Ravindra, Ravi Yadav, Bindu M. Kutty
    Sleep Medicine. 2021; 79: 29
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    46 A Double Jeopardy: COVID-19 impacts on the travel behavior and community living of people with disabilities
    Keunhyun Park, Brent Chamberlain, Ziqi Song, Hossein Nasr-Isfahani, Jeff Sheen, Teresa Larsen, Valerie Novack, Carlos Licon, Keith Christensen
    Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2021;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    47 COVID-19: Psychological Impact on Lockdown Population
    Bhuvaneswari Rajachandrasekar, K. C. Muraleedharan, Neethu Raj, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri, Aneena MS
    Homśopathic Links. 2021; 34(01): 026
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    48 Coronavirus Anxiety Scale: New psychometric evidence for the Spanish version based on CFA and IRT models in a Peruvian sample
    Tomás Caycho-Rodríguez, Lindsey W. Vilca, Carlos Carbajal-León, Michael White, Andrea Vivanco-Vidal, Daniela Saroli-Araníbar, Brian Norman Peńa-Calero, Rodrigo Moreta-Herrera
    Death Studies. 2021; : 1
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    49 COVID-19 pandemic and psychological wellbeing among health care workers and general population: A systematic-review and meta-analysis of the current evidence from India
    Rajesh Kumar Singh, Ram Bajpai, Pradeep Kaswan
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2021; 11: 100737
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    50 Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities: A rapid review
    Audrey Lebrasseur, Noémie Fortin-Bédard, Josiane Lettre, Eve-Line Bussičres, Krista Best, Normand Boucher, Mathieu Hotton, Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Catherine Mercier, Marie-Eve Lamontagne, François Routhier
    Disability and Health Journal. 2021; 14(1): 101014
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    51 Psychosocial impact of COVID-19
    Souvik Dubey, Payel Biswas, Ritwik Ghosh, Subhankar Chatterjee, Mahua Jana Dubey, Subham Chatterjee, Durjoy Lahiri, Carl J. Lavie
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020; 14(5): 779
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    52 Understanding coronaphobia
    Alisha Arora, Amrit Kumar Jha, Priya Alat, Sitanshu Sekhar Das
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 54: 102384
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    53 Mental health research in the lower-middle-income countries of Africa and Asia during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review
    Sujita Kumar Kar, Tosin Philip Oyetunji, Aathira J. Prakash, Olusegun Ayomikun Ogunmola, Sarvodaya Tripathy, Monsurat M. Lawal, Zainab K. Sanusi, S.M. Yasir Arafat
    Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. 2020; 38: 54
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    54 COVID-19 Barometer: Social Opinion – What Do the Portuguese Think in This Time of COVID-19?
    Ana Rita Pedro, Ana Gama, Patrícia Soares, Marta Moniz, Pedro A. Laires, Sónia Dias
    Portuguese Journal of Public Health. 2020; 38(Suppl. 1): 42
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    55 Depressive and anxiety symptoms, quality of sleep, and coping during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic in general population in Kashmir
    Bilal Ahmad Bhat, Rouf Ahmad Mir, Arshad Hussain, Iqra Rasheed Shah
    Middle East Current Psychiatry. 2020; 27(1)
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    56 Evidencing the need for psycho-socio-economic action to support the rural upskilled youth to cope with the COVID-19 health crisis: a state-wide audit
    M D Saju, Lorane Scaria, Natania Cheguvera, Anuja Maria Benny, Lizy P J, Binoy Joseph
    F1000Research. 2020; 9: 1375
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    57 Dynamics of psychological responses to COVID-19 in India: A longitudinal study
    Anvita Gopal, Anupam Joya Sharma, Malavika Ambale Subramanyam, Kristin Vickers
    PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(10): e0240650
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    58 Knowledge of COVID-19 and Its Influence on Mindfulness, Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Psychological Flexibility in the Indian Community
    Neha Dubey, Priyanka Podder, Dinkar Pandey
    Frontiers in Psychology. 2020; 11
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    59 GELECEK SALGINLARA HAZIRLIKTA SAGLIK EGITIMI VE BIREYSEL DAVRANIS MODELLERI: COVID-19 ÖRNEGI
    I?nci ARIKAN
    Eskisehir Türk Dünyasi Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi Halk Sagligi Dergisi. 2020;
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    60 The experiential impact of isolation and quarantine on patients during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in India
    Krishan Kumar, Shweta Jha, MahendraPrakash Sharma, Rajni Sharma, ShubhMohan Singh
    Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 2020; 29(2): 310
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    61 Mental health concerns related to COVID19 outbreak in the middle-aged and elderly population: A web-based, cross-sectional survey from Haryana, North India
    Jaison Joseph, Karobi Das, Suryakanti Dhal, Tamanna Sehrawat, Sweety Reshamia, Gazal Huria
    Journal of Geriatric Mental Health. 2020; 7(2): 100
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    62 Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial health and well-being in South-Asian (World Psychiatric Association zone 16) countries: A systematic and advocacy review from the Indian Psychiatric Society
    Debanjan Banerjee, Mrugesh Vaishnav, TS Sathyanarayana Rao, MS V K Raju, PK Dalal, Afzal Javed, Gautam Saha, KshirodK Mishra, Vinay Kumar, MukheshP Jagiwala
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 343
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]
    63 Effectiveness of teleconsultation use in access to mental health services during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in the Dominican Republic
    EddyA Peralta, Marisol Taveras
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 492
    [Pubmed] | [DOI]



     

    Top