Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 1590 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
Search Again
 Table of Contents
 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Article Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert
 Add to My List
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded372    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 295-305

Prevalence and clinical correlates of residual symptoms in remitted patients with bipolar disorder: An exploratory study

Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Sandeep Grover
Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_760_19

Rights and Permissions

Objective: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with residual symptoms (both depressive and manic) in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD). Materials and Methods: A total of 844 subjects diagnosed BD with an illness of 2 years' duration and minimum of two lifetime episodes and in clinical remission were evaluated for residual symptoms using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Based on the severity of residual symptoms, the study groups were divided into four groups. Results: Sixty-nine percent of the subjects had residual depressive symptoms (i.e., HAM-D score in the range of 1–7) and 59% had residual manic symptoms (i.e., YMRS score in the range of 1–7). The most common residual depressive symptom was psychic anxiety (34%) followed by impaired insight (29%). The most common manic symptom was poor insight (31%) followed by sleep disturbances (25%). Subjects with both sets of residual symptoms had onset of BD at a relatively young age, when compared to those with only residual depressive symptoms. Presence of any comorbid physical illness and substance abuse disorder was significantly higher in those with both sets of residual symptoms. Conclusions: The present study suggests that a substantial proportion of patients with BD have residual symptoms of both types. Comorbid physical illness and substance use were associated with residual symptoms. Identification and management of residual symptoms are highly essential to improve the overall outcome of patients with BD.



Print this article         Email this article