Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
Home | About us | Current Issue | Archives | Ahead of Print | Submission | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
    Users online: 5929 Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
 


 

 
     
    Advanced search
 

 
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusions
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed35518    
    Printed467    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded3640    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 130    

Recommend this journal

 


 
 Table of Contents    
DENTAL SCIENCE - REVIEW ARTICLE  
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 354-362
Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India


1 Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Punjab, India
2 Fortis Hospital, Mohali, Punjab, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Psychiatry, TNMC and BYL Nair Ch. Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
5 Department of Psychiatry, Hi-Tech Medical College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
6 Asha Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
7 Clinic Brain Neuropsychiatric Institute and Research Center, Barasat, West Bengal, India
8 Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India
9 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine and J.N.M Hospital, WBUHS, Kalyani, West Bengal, India
10 Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
11 Samvedana Group of Hospital and Research Centre, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India
12 Department of Psychiatry, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
13 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
14 Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
15 Gautam hospital and Research Center, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
16 Department of Psychiatry, JSS Medical College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India
17 Manoved Mind Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission01-May-2020
Date of Decision03-May-2020
Date of Acceptance07-May-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Jul-2020
 

   Abstract 


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a complete shut-down of the entire world and almost all the countries are presently in a “lockdown” mode. While the lockdown strategy is an essential step to curb the exponential rise of COVID-19 cases, the impact of the same on mental health is not well known.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the psychological impact of lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic on the general public with an objective to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, well-being, and other psychological issues.
Materials and Methods: It was an online survey conducted under the aegis of the Indian Psychiatry Society. Using the Survey Monkey platform, a survey link was circulated using the Whatsapp. The survey questionnaire included perceived stress scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale to assess perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being, respectively. The survey link was circulated starting from April 6, 2020 and was closed on April 24, 2020.
Results: During the survey, a total of 1871 responses were collected, of which 1685 (90.05%) responses were analyzed. About two-fifth (38.2%) had anxiety and 10.5% of the participants had depression. Overall, 40.5% of the participants had either anxiety or depression. Moderate level of stress was reported by about three-fourth (74.1%) of the participants and 71.7% reported poor well-being.
Conclusions: The present survey suggests that more than two-fifths of the people are experiencing common mental disorders, due to lockdown and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic. This finding suggests that there is a need for expanding mental health services to everyone in the society during this pandemic situation.

Keywords: Anxiety, COVID-19, Depression, Stress

How to cite this article:
Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Subramanyan A, Pattojoshi A, Rao G P, Saha G, Mishra K K, Chakraborty K, Rao NP, Vaishnav M, Singh OP, Dalal P K, Chadda RK, Gupta R, Gautam S, Sarkar S, Sathyanarayana Rao T S, Kumar V, Janardran Reddy Y C. Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry 2020;62:354-62

How to cite this URL:
Grover S, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Subramanyan A, Pattojoshi A, Rao G P, Saha G, Mishra K K, Chakraborty K, Rao NP, Vaishnav M, Singh OP, Dalal P K, Chadda RK, Gupta R, Gautam S, Sarkar S, Sathyanarayana Rao T S, Kumar V, Janardran Reddy Y C. Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Sep 26];62:354-62. Available from: https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2020/62/4/354/286222





   Introduction Top


One of the extreme challenges for survival is facing a pandemic of an infectious disease of the COVID-19 type.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and as on March 24, 2020, more than 3.5 lakhs cases have been confirmed and more than 14,000 deaths have been reported, affecting 190 countries worldwide (WHO website dated March 24, 2020 at 21:00 pm Indian standard time)[2] and these figures have exponentially increased to about 27.19 lakhs cases with about 1.9 lakhs deaths in 1 month time (WHO website date April 25, 2020 at 05:30 pm Indian standard time).[3]

To tackle the rapid rise of cases in India and to curb the community spread, national level “lockdown” was declared starting from midnight of March 25, 2020 initially for 21 days, which was later extended up to May 3, 2020, with assurance that the basic needs of the general public will be taken care of.[4]

“Lockdown” is an emergency protocol that prevents public from moving from one area to the other. Complete lockdown further means that persons should stay where they are currently and no entry/exit movements would be allowed further. It can be both a preventive and an emergency strategy in order to save the lives of the vulnerable or at-risk persons. In this scenario, all educational institutions, shopping arcades, factories, offices, local markets, transport vehicles, airports, railways, metros, and buses are completely shut down except hospitals, police stations, emergency services like fire station, petrol pumps, etc., and groceries. In recent times, lockdown had been very well documented during September 9/11 attacks in New York (3 day lockdown) and during riots in several countries. As social distancing is an important public health solution to tackle the spread of COVID-19, many affected countries such as China, Italy, the United States, France, and Malaysia have also enforced lockdowns of public spaces effectively.[5],[6]

While lockdown can be a significant and effective strategy of social distancing to tackle the increasing spread of the highly infectious COVID-19 virus, at the same time, it can have some degree of psychological impact on the public. It is well known that quarantine/isolation for any cause and in the context of a pandemic (Severe Acute Respiratory distress Syndrome, 2003) has been associated with significant mental health problems ranging from anxiety, fear, depressive symptoms, sense of loneliness, sleep disturbances, anger, etc., in the immediate few days of isolation, and later with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression after discharge from the hospital.[7] However, the psychological impact of lockdown on the general public has not been studied yet. Man being a social animal, such restrictions on free movements can lead to anger, frustration, loneliness and depressive symptoms. There can be fear/apprehension among the public related to supply of basic amenities like groceries and milk supplies, medicines, care of previously sick persons in the family due to other medical causes, elderly persons staying alone, restriction of free movements, having a prevailing sense of being imprisoned in one's own house or “being in house arrest,” etc., Moreover, lockdown can lead to a “panic” mode of stockpiling of essential commodities without maintaining social distancing as advised by the government.[8]

Lockdown can have different effects on different age groups. It may be difficult to engage the children at home throughout the day. This can be a source of stress to the parents. Similarly, due to the vulnerability of elderly for COVID-19 infections, others would avoid to meet the elderly, which can be a major source of distress, both for the elderly and their family members.

Unlike western countries, Indians are thought to be more social and have more social networks, engage in several religious festivals, and get-togethers across the year.[9] This can be attributed to India's diverse culture and traditions.[10] In this regard, a complete lockdown can have a downgrading effect on the psyche of the general public. It can also have a long lasting effect on the economy, farming and daily wage earners of the country. While it is an utmost necessary step to be taken at present to combat the COVID-19 infection, steps should be taken to mitigate the possible psychological impact of lockdown in the general public.

Moreover, recent reports suggest that the government's sudden enforcement of lockdown has created many hurdles to the economically disadvantaged populations as evident from the mass exodus of migrant workers and concerns about starvation among people in slum areas.[4] A recently published sentiment analysis of lockdown through twitter (analysis as evident from tweets extracted from 25th to 28th March 2020; n = 24,000 tweets) reported that the prominent sentiment was positive and trust on the government; further, many respondents reported sadness and worries about the problems of daily wage laborers during lockdown.[11] However, no national-wide data on the psychological impact of lockdown in India are available. Therefore, the current study was planned with an aim to evaluate the psychological impact of lockdown on the general public with an objective to assess the fear, perceived stress, and psychological problems related to lockdown due to COVID-19 infection in India.


   Materials and Methods Top


It was an online survey conducted under the aegis of Research, Education and Training sub-Committee of Indian Psychiatric Society. Using the Survey Monkey platform, a survey link was circulated using the Whatsapp. The survey questionnaire was translated into 11 Indian languages (Hindi, Odia, Bengali, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujrati, and Urdu) besides being used in English. The link was designed in such a way, that only 1 response can be generated using one device. The survey questionnaire consisted of the following instruments:

Demographics and personal characteristics

A basic information sheet which included information about the subject's age, gender, marital status, educational qualifications, and current work profile.

A questionnaire to evaluate the effect of lockdown on relationship with family members/neighbors/significant others and how lockdown had affected one's emotions, feelings, and behaviors in different aspects of life.

The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale [12]

It is 14-item scale covering both hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of mental health including positive affect (feelings of optimism, cheerfulness, and relaxation), satisfying interpersonal relationships and positive functioning (energy, clear thinking, self-acceptance, personal development, competence, and autonomy). It has good content validity and high test-retest reliability.[12] The total score was determined by adding the score of all the 14 items. A higher score indicates greater positive well-being. A score of ≤40 has been reported to indicate high risk for depression.[13],[14]

Patient Health Questionnaire-9

The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders.[15] The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria as “0” (not at all) to “3” (nearly every day). This questionnaire is found to have excellent reliability and validity, and sensitivity and specificity of 88% for major depression.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale

It is a 7-item anxiety scale with good reliability as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. Cutoff points of 5, 10, and 15 are interpreted as representing mild, moderate, and severe levels of anxiety on the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)-7.[16] Increasing scores on the scale are strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment. Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms have differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There is good agreement between self-report and interviewer administered versions of the scale. This study employed self-reported version.

Perceived stress scale

It is a 10-item scale widely used to assess the perception of stress. It is a measure of the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. Items were designed to tap how unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded respondents find their lives. The scale also includes a number of direct queries about current levels of experienced stress.[17] The questions are of a general nature and hence are relatively free of content specific to any subpopulation group. The questions in the perceived stress scale (PSS) ask about feelings and thoughts during the last month. It has adequate psychometric properties.[18] For this survey, we had reduced the time limit to 15 days.

The survey link was circulated in 12 Indian languages starting from of April 6, 2020, i.e. after 10 days of declaration of lockdown, and the survey was closed on April 24, 2020. The link was circulated by the Exponential Non-Discriminative snowballing method, people receiving the message were requested to complete the survey and then forward the link to their close contacts in various Whatsapp group, Facebook, and Twitter platforms.

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Indian Psychiatric Society, for the research purposes. Descriptive statistics were applied and the data collected was analyzed using SPSS 20.0 version. Pearson's co-relation co-efficient and Spearman's co-relation co-efficient were used to find the association between different variables.


   Results Top


During the survey, a total of 1871 responses were collected of which 1685 (90.05%) responses were analyzed (which were complete in all aspects, except for information on age available for 1653 participants only). The median duration of completing the survey was 12th day of the lockdown period (mean: 12.84, standard deviation [SD]:2.04); Range: 11th day to 21st day).

The mean age of the participants (1653 responses) was 41.26 (SD: 13.67) years. About three-fifths of the participants (63.7%) were male, about three-fourth were married (72.6%), three-fifth had completed postgraduation (61.8%), majority were employed (self-employed/employed in government sector or private sector) (78.9%). With regard to profession, slightly less than half of the responders (47.1%) were health-care workers (HCWs). In terms of current level of working during lockdown, about one-fifth of responders (21.1%) were not going to work and rest were either working from home for few hours (17.7%) or for usual hours (8.5%) and some were going for work for few hours (16.6%) [Table 1].
Table 1: Sociodemographic profile (n=1685)

Click here to view


Perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being during lockdown

The mean PSS score for the study participants was 16.56 (SD - 5.60) and about 70% of the participants reported moderate level of stress and one-fourth reported mild stress after the onset of the lockdown period. The mean GAD-7 score was 4.14 (SD - 4.84) and about one-fourth participants (23.7%) fell into the category of moderate symptom severity. The mean PHQ-9 score of the participants was 3.63 (SD - 4.81) with majority of the participants reported “no or minimal depressive symptoms” but 18.5% reported mild depressive symptoms and a small proportion of the participants reported moderate (5.8%) and moderate-to-severe depression (3.0%). The mean Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score for the study participants was 43.92 (SD - 8.79). When the cut off for high risk of depression (i.e., score ≤40) was applied, about 70% of the participants (71.7%) had score ≤40, suggesting poor mental well-being [Table 2].
Table 2: Perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and mental well-being during lockdown and comparison of these variables between health care workers and nonhealth-care workers

Click here to view


Comparison of anxiety, depression, stress, and well-being of health-care workers and non health-care workers

As about a half of the responders were HCWs (47.1%), we compared the data of the HCWs and those who were not HCWs. Compared to HCWs, non-HCWs had significantly higher mean PHQ-9 score, higher proportion of them had depression, if mild depression is taken into account, and lower proportion of them had poor mental well-being. Details are mentioned in [Table 2].

Effect of lockdown on relationships

Nearly half of the responders reported marked improvement in their relationships with their spouse/partner (47.4%), children (44.2%), and with parents (47.3%) after the beginning of lockdown period. Further, about three-fifth of the participants reported marked improvement in their relationship with their neighbors (61.8%) and office colleagues (59.6%) during the lockdown period [Table 3].
Table 3: Effect of lockdown on relationships

Click here to view


Effect of lockdown on one's emotions, feelings and various aspects of life

The effect of lockdown on one's emotions, feelings, and various aspects of life was evaluated on likert scale with the following, options “no change,” “slightly increased,” “markedly increased,” “slightly decreased,” “markedly decreased,” and “can't say” [Table 3]. In most of the areas, majority of the participants reported no change, yet about one-third of the study participants reported slight worsening (increase) of negative emotions such as sadness (30.7%), anxiety (36%), irritability (32.2%), frustration (32.3%), and fear and apprehension (33.8%). About one-fifth of the participants reported increase in feelings of loneliness (21.3%) and fear of death (20.8%). Another 10%–15% of participants reported marked worsening of these negative emotions. Slight increased in social connectedness was reported by 18.7% and marked increase in use of social media was reported by about one-third (35.1%) of the participants.

Regarding somatic symptoms, sleep, appetite and fatigue, there was slight worsening (increase) in these features in about one-fifths of responders [Table 4]. About one-third to about three-fifth of the participants reported slight or marked increase in activities such as exercise, faith in God, watching movies, internet gaming, playing indoor games, sexual activity, reading books, painting, cooking, and cleaning [Table 4]. There was marked reduction in shopping and spending in a significant proportion of the participants.
Table 4: Effect of lockdown on one's emotions, feelings, and various aspects of life

Click here to view


Stress due to COVID-19 infection

More than one-third of the participants (38.5%) had fear of getting infected with COVID-19 infection, always wore masks and protective equipment even in open spaces (37.9%), invested majority of their time reading or watching COVID-related facts (38.5%), and had anxiety when dealing with febrile patients/family members (38.8%). One-fourth of the responders reported feelings of pessimism or hopelessness (23.3%), feeling detached from others (24.0%), feeling exhausted (24.3%) and had trouble falling asleep/frequent awakenings (27.7%). Further, about one-fifth of the responders reported having avoided COVID-19-related information (20.8%), had anxiety/palpitations (19.3%) and had deterioration in the work performance (19.3%). About 30% of the participants reported of feeling irritated and angry on self or others, and with the uncertainty about frequent modifications of infection control procedures (32.0%). About one-fourth of the participants also reported fear of going out of home, because of fear of infecting family members. Only 10% of the responders reported experiencing stigma and rejection in neighborhood because of working in the hospital/being kept in quarantined facility, and a similar proportion was reluctant to work or considered resignation after discharge [Table 5].
Table 5: Stress due to coronavirus disease-19 infection

Click here to view


Relationship between anxiety, stress, sadness, mental well-being, and duration of lockdown period

Higher level of stress, depression, and anxiety correlated positively with each other and negatively with the well-being. It was further seen that there was significant positive correlation between the perceived stress and severity of depression with the duration of lockdown period [Table 6].
Table 6: The association between day of response of lockdown with reported perceived stress, sadness, anxiety, and mental well-being during lockdown

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


With no alternative ways to escape from the COVID pandemic, almost all the countries have adopted the lockdown strategy as a potentially effective strategy to fight against the COVID-19. India was also quite early in its response to impose lockdown, as early as, within 2 weeks of declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic, i.e., March 25 (WHO declared COVID-19 to be pandemic on March 11, 2020). Even though this strategy is an important measure to tackle the exponential rise of COVID cases, it has widespread impact on the economy, psyche, and daily living of the public. In this regard, the current study was planned to evaluate the psychological impact of lockdown on the general public with an objective to assess the fear, perceived stress, and psychological problems related to lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic in India.

Some of the strengths of the survey were that it was translated into 11 Indian languages along with English. Further, the survey questionnaires also included the evaluation of impact of lockdown on relationship with significant others and how the lockdown affected one's emotions and feelings. Besides, the use of some self-designed questionnaire, the survey also included well-validated scales usually used for community surveys such as GAD-7, PHQ-9, PSS, and WEMWBS (for well-being).[19],[20],[21],[22]

The prevalence rates of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms based on cut off scores of PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were 10.5% and 38.2%, respectively. A comparison of our findings with those of the National Mental Health Survey (NMHS)[23] shows that psychiatric morbidity of common mental illnesses may be higher in our study (40.5%) than the estimated prevalence of 10% in the NMHS.[24] It can be argued that the significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the present study compared to the NMHS may be due to the use of different sampling methods and use screening instruments (whereas NMHS employed Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview), but the screening instruments have been found to have high sensitivity and specificity against the diagnosis made by mental health professionals.[25],[26] Thus, the difference in the prevalence rates cannot be completely attributed to the difference in the methodology. Hence, it is possible that lockdown period has led to a significant increase in the mental morbidity of mostly milder intensity in the general public. A web-based survey from China, which evaluated the psychological problems among the Chinese people (n = 1074) close to the COVID-19 epidemic peak and subsequent lockdown, reported anxiety (mild/moderate/severe as evident from Beck's Anxiety Inventory) in 29% of participants and depression (mild/moderate/severe as evident from Beck's Depression Inventory) in 37% of participants, and poor mental well-being in one-third of its participants.[27] The prevalence of anxiety found in the present study is comparable to the previous study from China, but the prevalence rate of depression is lower. The lower rate of depression in the present survey, compared to the study from China, could be due to the difference in the timing of the study, in terms of the number of COVID-19 cases in the country. The present survey was done at the beginning of the epidemic in the country, compared to the survey from China, which was done, close to the peak of epidemic. The association of higher prevalence of depression, close to the peak of the epidemic, can be understood by the fact that the COVID-19 was associated with higher mortality rate in China, compared to current statistics from India. In the present study too, the association of depression and longer duration of lockdown was seen, which could be an indicator of increase in prevalence of depression with an increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 infection. The prevalence of mild-to-moderate anxiety and depression, in 40.5% of the participants in the present survey indicate that the pandemic and the lockdown is having a big toll on the mental health of people in the country and suggest an urgent need to address the same. The Indian Psychiatric Society took a lead in this direction, in the early stages of the lockdown, by providing free mental health aid to the people desirous of seeking mental health care.

In the present survey, 47.1% of the participants were HCWs and when the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was compared between the HCWs, when the mild depression (i.e., PHQ-9 score of 5-9) was also included as an indicator of depression. However, when the cut-off of ≥ 10 was used for depression, there was no significant different between the 2 groups. and non-HCWs, it was seen that the prevalence of depression to be significantly higher among the non-HCWs. Existing literature on the mental health problems faced by the HCWs in China during the COVID-19 crisis suggests a significant proportion of HCWs (36.9%) suffered from subthreshold mental health disturbances (as assessed by PHQ-9, GAD-7, Insomnia Severity Index)[28] and about 22.4%–50% of HCWs reported experiencing depression, anxiety, significant distress and insomnia.[29] Our findings are comparable to these studies among HCWs, if mild anxiety and mild depression are taken into account.

In the present study, in general, majority of the participants reported positive impact of the lockdown on the relationship dimension in terms of relationship with parents, children, spouse, colleagues, and neighbors. The improved relationship could be attributed to the availability of more free time, less work pressure and possible fulfillment of long desired free time. Findings of the present study are supported by many available websites/blogs, which have reported positive aspects of lockdown such as improvement in air quality/healing of nature,[30] making people realize value of re-connecting with families [31] and improvement in love/dating and family relationships.[32] However, the improved relationship dimensions could also be attributed to the fact that, when everyone is fighting a common enemy, the interpersonal relationship issues are forgotten, which is possibly reflected as improved relationships.[33],[34] Another explanation for the improved relationship could be a fear of death, which often makes people perceive themselves as weak, and hence, have less initiative to fight with others.[35]

However, despite improvement in the interpersonal dimension, there was increase in the prevalence of negative emotions such as sadness, loneliness, anxiety, frustration, and fear and apprehension in about one-third to nearly half of the participants. These findings again support the possible increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety, in the wake of the pandemic. When asked about the COVID-19 infection per se, about one-fourth to one-third of the participants reported presence of symptoms related to possible COVID-19 infection to be stressful. Some of the other reported areas for which a significant proportion of participants reported significant stress were fear of getting infected with COVID-19 infection, always wore masks and protective equipment even in open spaces, invested majority of their time reading or watching COVID related facts, had anxiety when dealing with febrile patients/family members, feelings of pessimism or hopelessness, feeling detached from others, feeling exhausted and had trouble falling asleep/frequent awakenings, avoiding COVID-19-related information, having anxiety/palpitations, deterioration in the work performance and some experiencing stigma and rejection due to their profession related to HCWs or due to being under quarantine. All these findings reflect the fear of infection of contracting COVID-19. While fear of contracting COVID-19 can be considered as justified, considering the worldwide mortality and infection rates, but these could also be attributed to the issues such as media hype and prevailing myths related to COVID-19 infection.

This survey has certain limitations. Despite attempts to circulate widely in all possible social media platforms, wider participation was expected. Accordingly, it can be said that the response rate for the survey was low. About half of the participants were doctors, which suggest that the survey did not have the desired snowballing effect, as much as it was expected. A majority of the participants were postgraduates, which was possibly again influenced by the higher proportion of participants being doctors. The survey was limited to those, who had access to a smart phone device and it can be said that the study participants may not be representative of people from various strata of the country. However, considering the situation, this was the possible best methodology to reach to the people to understand the psychological impact. These limitations suggest that the findings may not be generalizable to every strata of the society.


   Conclusions Top


To conclude, the present survey suggests that more than two-fifth of the people are experiencing anxiety and depression, due to lockdown and the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic. This finding suggests that there is a need of expanding the mental health services to everyone in the society during this pandemic situation.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

We would like to thank the following colleagues for helping out in the Translation of scales in different languages: Dr. Abdul Maajid, Dr. Ajay Kumar, Dr. Amal Jolly, Joseph, Aniruddha Deb, Dr. Dalton N, Debashish Chatterjee, Prof. Jasmin Patel, Dr. Nandita Hazari, Dr. Natrajan V, Dr. Naveen Anand, Dr. Rajshekhar Bipeta, Dr. Ritu Nehra, Dr. Roshan Bhad, Dr. S Sai Spoorthy, Dr. Shaheena Parveen, Dr. Shahul Ameen.



 
   References Top

1.
Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise ases/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 21].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise ases/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 22].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
World Health Organization. Coronavirus. World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disea ses/novel-coronavirus-2019. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 25].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
The Lancet. India under COVID-19 lockdown. Lancet 2020;395:1315.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Henley J. Madrid KWAK in. Coronavirus: France Imposes Lockdown as EU calls for 30-Day Travel Ban. The Guardian; 2020. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/m ar/16/coronavirus-spain-takes-over-priv ate-healthcare-amid-more-euro pean-lockdowns. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Coronavirus: US Cities put into Lockdown as COVID-19 Cases Worldwide Overtake China | World News | Sky News. Available from:https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-new-york-and-la-on-lockdown-as-world-reacts-to-spread-of-covid-19-11958145. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 24].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Reynolds DL, Garay JR, Deamond SL, Moran MK, Gold W, Styra R. Understanding, compliance and psychological impact of the SARS quarantine experience. Epidemiol Infect 2008;136:997-1007.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Varalakshmi R, Swetha R. Covid-19 lock down: People psychology due to law enforcement. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;51:102102. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/p mc/articles/PMC7162767/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 26].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Chadda RK, Deb KS. Indian family systems, collectivistic society and psychotherapy. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55:S299-309.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Gopalkrishnan N. Cultural diversity and mental health: Considerations for policy and practice. Front Public Health 2018;6:179.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Barkur G, Vibha, Kamath GB. Sentiment analysis of nationwide lockdown due to COVID 19 outbreak: Evidence from India. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;51:102089. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pm c/articles/PMC7152888/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 26].  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tennant R, Hiller L, Fishwick R, Platt S, Joseph S, Weich S, et al. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2007;5:63.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Clarke A, Friede T, Putz R, Ashdown J, Martin S, Blake A, et al. Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): Validated for teenage school students in England and Scotland. A mixed methods assessment. BMC Public Health 2011;11:487.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Available from: https://www.corc.uk.net/outcome-experien ce-measures/warwick-edinburgh-me ntal-wellbeing-scale/. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 26].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606-13.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1092-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983;24:385-96.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Lee EH. Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress scale. Asian Nurs Res (Korean Soc Nurs Sci) 2012;6:121-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Amoran O, Ogunsemi O, Lasebikan V. Assessment of mental disorders using the patient health questionnaire as a general screening tool in western Nigeria: A community-based study. J Neurosci Rural Pract 2012;3:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
20.
Kader Maideen SF, Mohd Sidik S, Rampal L, Mukhtar F. Prevalence, associated factors and predictors of anxiety: A community survey in Selangor, Malaysia. BMC Psychiatry 2015;15:262.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Moriarty AS, Gilbody S, McMillan D, Manea L. Screening and case finding for major depressive disorder using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): A meta-analysis. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2015;37:567-76.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Richardson LP, McCauley E, Grossman DC, McCarty CA, Richards J, Russo JE, et al. Evaluation of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item for detecting major depression among adolescents. Pediatrics 2010;126:1117-23.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Murthy RS. National Mental Health Survey of India 2015–2016. Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59:21-6.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
24.
Gautham MS, Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, Rao GN, Kokane A, et al. The National Mental Health Survey of India (2016): Prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and treatment gap of mental morbidity. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020:20764020907941. doi: 10.1177/0020764020907941. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Inoue T, Tanaka T, Nakagawa S, Nakato Y, Kameyama R, Boku S, et al. Utility and limitations of PHQ-9 in a clinic specializing in psychiatric care. BMC Psychiatry 2012;12:73.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Levis B, Benedetti A, Thombs BD. Accuracy of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for screening to detect major depression: Individual participant data meta-analysis. BMJ 2019;365:l1476.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Ahmed MZ, Ahmed O, Aibao Z, Hanbin S, Siyu L, Ahmad A. Epidemic of COVID-19 in China and associated psychological problems. Asian J Psychiatry 2020;51:102092.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatry 2020;7:e14.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, Wei N, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open 2020;3:e203976.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
India's Coronavirus Lockdown is Having a Dramatic Impact on Pollution - CNN. Available from: https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/31/asia/coro navirus-lockdown-impact-pollution-india-intl-hn k/index.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 28].  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Foster O. 'Lockdown made me Realise What's Important': Meet the Families Reconnecting Remotely. The Guardian; 2020. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/keep-connected/2020/apr/23/lockdown-made-me-realise-whats-important-meet-the-fa milies-reconnecting-remotely. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 28].  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Bilefsky D, Yeginsu C. Of 'Covidivorces' and 'Coronababies': Life During a Lockdown. N. Y. Times; 2020. Available from: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/27/world/corona virus-lockdown-relationsh ips.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 28].  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Sullivan D, Landau MJ, Rothschild ZK. An existential function of enemyship: Evidence that people attribute influence to personal and political enemies to compensate for threats to control. J Pers Soc Psychol 2010;98:434-49.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Bosson JK, Johnson AB, Niederhoffer K, Swann WB. Interpersonal chemistry through negativity: Bonding by sharing negative attitudes about others. Pers Relatsh 2006;13:135-50.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Mikulincer M, Florian V, Birnbaum G, Malishkevich S. The death-anxiety buffering function of close relationships: Exploring the effects of separation reminders on death-thought accessibility. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2002;28:287-99.  Back to cited text no. 35
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Sandeep Grover
Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_427_20

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]

This article has been cited by
1 Psychological Wellbeing and Associated Factors Among Ethnic Minorities During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Cho Lee Wong, Alice W. Y. Leung, Dorothy N. S. Chan, Ka Ming Chow, Carmen W. H. Chan, Marques S. N. Ng, Winnie K. W. So
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The Global Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Insomnia Among General Population During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Sultan Mahmud, Md Mohsin, Md. Nayem Dewan, Abdul Muyeed
Trends in Psychology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Families of People with Severe Mental Disorders Participating in Community Peer Support Groups in Brazil
Leonardo Palmeira, Alexandre Keusen, Elias Carim Neto, Rita de Cassia Ribeiro, Silvana Barreto, Olga Leăo, Maria Tavares Cavalcanti
Trends in Psychology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Diverse Experiences and Coping During the COVID-19 Lockdown and Unlock in India
Farheen Meraj, Japneet Kaur Makkar
Trends in Psychology. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Factor structure and validity of the Revised Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI-2) among Indian adults
Vikas Menon, Anokhi Rajiv Bafna, Megan L Rogers, Jenelle Richards, Igor Galynker
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; : 103119
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Yoga and meditation, an essential tool to alleviate stress and enhance immunity to emerging infections: A perspective on the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on students
Nibedita Dalpati, Subhashree Jena, Shikha Jain, Pranita P. Sarangi
Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health. 2022; 20: 100420
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Microfinance loan officers before and during Covid-19: Evidence from India
Kristina Czura, Florian Englmaier, Hoa Ho, Lisa Spantig
World Development. 2022; : 105812
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Vignettes of mothering through the pandemic: A gendered perspective of challenges and making meaning of motherhood in India
Ketoki Mazumdar, Isha Sen, Sneha Parekh
Women's Studies International Forum. 2022; 90: 102539
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Age-related cognitive effects of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and associated mental health changes in Germans
Inga Menze, Patrick Mueller, Notger G. Mueller, Marlen Schmicker
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Development and Validation of Structured COVID Perception Interview Guide (COPING) for Assessing the Acute Impact of COVID-19 Diagnosis
Roshan Sutar, Anuja Lahiri, Gaurav Singh, Swanzil Chaudhary
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Perspectives of scholars on the origin, spread and consequences of COVID-19 are diverse but not polarized
Prakash Kumar Paudel, Rabin Bastola, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Amaël Borzée, Santosh Thapa, Dana Rad, Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran, Suganthi Appalasamy, Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain, Anirban Ash, Raju Adhikari, Roshan Babu Ojha, Shreeya Manandhar, Bhagawati Kunwar, Fikty Aprilinayati, Ambarish Pokhrel, Bharat Raj Poudel, Shanta Dhakal, Obeta M. Uchejeso, Susanta Kumar Ghosh, Nilanchal Patel, Subodh Adhikari
Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 2022; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Holding space for those who heal: Reflections from the Rahbar Supportive Supervision Programme during the Covid 19 pandemic
Chetna Duggal, Bakul Dua, Arushi Kothari
The Clinical Supervisor. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 A longitudinal study of depression, anxiety, and stress among Indians during COVID-19 pandemic
Usama Rehman, Murat Yildirim, Mohammad Ghazi Shahnawaz
Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 How the COVID-19 lockdown affects social relationships in Bangladesh: A social media-based cross-sectional study
Sima Rani Dey
International Social Science Journal. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Worry, Perceived Discrimination, Lifestyle Changes, and Protective Factors During COVID-19: A Study With Recovering Patients in Delhi, India
Sramana Majumdar, Pragya Acholia, Simran Saraf, Siddhant Khurana
SAGE Open. 2022; 12(1): 2158244022
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Explicating Collective Technology Efficacy in Work from Home Context: Study of Employees with Positive Feelings
Nikhil K. Mehta, Sumi Jha, Som Sekhar Bhattacharya
Business Perspectives and Research. 2022; : 2278533722
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Emotional distress in COVID-19 patients in Maldives
Rajib Kumar Dey, Shanooha Mansoor, Abdullah Isneen Hilmy, Sheena Moosa, Shiraany Abdul Rahman, Raishan Latheef, Nihla Rasheed, Fathimath Guraishaa Hassan, Ali Zaadhee, Afa Ibrahim, Sofoora Kawsar Usman
BMC Psychiatry. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Self-promotion and online shaming during COVID-19: A toxic combination
Rajat Kumar Behera, Pradip Kumar Bala, Nripendra P. Rana, Ghadeer Kayal
International Journal of Information Management Data Insights. 2022; : 100117
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Household expenditure on non-Covid hospitalisation care during the Covid-19 pandemic and the role of financial protection policies in India
Samir Garg, Kirtti Kumar Bebarta, Narayan Tripathi
Archives of Public Health. 2022; 80(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Association between COVID-19 pandemic and the suicide rates in Nepal
Binod Acharya, Keshab Subedi, Pramod Acharya, Shweta Ghimire, Christine Leong
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(1): e0262958
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to COVID-19 among poor and marginalized communities in central India: A cross-sectional study
Krithika Murali, Nitya Balagopalan, Jyoti Benawri, Anand Kumar Bairagi, Nagappa Veerappa Heggannanavar, Ashish Srivastava, Swati Mahajan, Gabriel Hoh Teck Ling
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(4): e0264639
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 ‘Kindness by Post’: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Participatory Public Mental Health Project
Congxiyu Wang, Eiluned Pearce, Rebecca Jones, Brynmor Lloyd-Evans
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 An Exploratory Study on Subjective Perceptions of Happiness From India
Kamlesh Singh, Shilpa Bandyopadhyay, Gaurav Saxena
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Problems or prospects? Being a parent in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany
Angelika Ecker, Irina Jarvers, Daniel Schleicher, Stephanie Kandsperger, Iris Schelhorn, Marie Meyer, Thomas Borchert, Michael Lüdtke, Youssef Shiban
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Impact of closure of educational institutions due to COVID-19 lockdown on overall subjective wellbeing of adolescents and youth: Cross-sectional survey, India
Tina Rawal, Vijay Kumar Mishra, Shefali Godura Sharda, Kiran Sharma, Rajesh Mehta, Muralidhar M. Kulkarni, Sonu Goel, Monika Arora
Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 The profile of musculoskeletal pain and its associations with sleep quality and depression during the COVID-19 in Turkey
Merve Karatel, Zeynep Irem Bulut, Erkin Oguz Sari, Zerrin Pelin, Yavuz Yakut
The Korean Journal of Pain. 2022; 35(1): 78
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Coping Strategy, Life Style and Health Status During Phase 3 of Indian National Lockdown for COVID-19 Pandemic—A Pan-India Survey
Raghuram Nagarathna, Manjunath N. K. Sharma, Judu Ilavarasu, Ravi Kulkarni, Akshay Anand, Vijaya Majumdar, Amit Singh, Jagat Ram, Manjari Rain, Hongasandra R. Nagendra
Frontiers in Public Health. 2022; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Uneven Implications of Lockdown Amid COVID-19 in India: From Harassment, Stigma, Crime, and Internally Displaced People to Stress and Coping Strategies in the Middle/Upper Class
Shagufta Nasir, Mohammad Ghazi Shahnawaz, Lydia Giménez-Llort
Behavioral Sciences. 2022; 12(10): 348
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 A Cross-Sectional Study on Mental Health of School Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in India
Sibnath Deb, Samarjit Kar, Shayana Deb, Sanjib Biswas, Aehsan Ahmad Dar, Tusharika Mukherjee
Data. 2022; 7(7): 99
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 The Importance of Behavioral and Native Factors on COVID-19 Infection and Severity: Insights from a Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study
Hani Amir Aouissi, Mohamed Seif Allah Kechebar, Mostefa Ababsa, Rabih Roufayel, Bilel Neji, Alexandru-Ionut Petrisor, Ahmed Hamimes, Loďc Epelboin, Norio Ohmagari
Healthcare. 2022; 10(7): 1341
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Xenophobic Bullying and COVID-19: An Exploration Using Big Data and Qualitative Analysis
Karla Dhungana Sainju, Huda Zaidi, Niti Mishra, Akosua Kuffour
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(8): 4824
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 The Impact of Changes regarding Working Circumstances during COVID-19 Pandemic upon Patients Evaluated for Thyroid Dysfunction
Anca Popa, Aurelia-Ioana Chereji, Monica Angelica Dodu, Ioan Chereji, Andreea Fitero, Cristian Marius Daina, Lucia Georgeta Daina, Dana Badau, Daniela Carmen Neculoiu, Carmen Domnariu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(16): 9856
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Analysis of Psychological Distress During COVID-19 Among Professionals
Supriya Raheja
International Journal of Software Innovation. 2022; 10(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Challenges faced by healthcare workers at a central hospital in Zimbabwe after contracting COVID-19: An interpretive phenomenological analysis study
Idah Moyo, Avhatakali A. Ndou-Mammbona, Azwihangwisi H. Mavhandu-Mudzusi
South African Family Practice. 2022; 64(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Anxiety, knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices toward COVID-19 among patients with psychiatric illness – A comparative study from South India
Preethy Raghuraman, Manjula Simiyon, VishnuVardhan Rudravaram, Manikandan Mani, Pradeep Thilakan
Annals of Indian Psychiatry. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Stigma among COVID-19 patients in South India-A cross-sectional study
KannappaV Shetty, AnekalC Amaresha, Urmila Bamney, RaviPhilip Rajkumar, Prerna Srivastava, G Mahesh
Archives of Mental Health. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Intimate Relationships during COVID-19 across the Genders: An Examination of the Interactions of Digital Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Mental Health
Amanda Evangeline Ting, Craig Steven McLachlan
Social Sciences. 2022; 11(7): 297
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 How Banks Were Chosen and Rated in Hungary before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Dóra Szili, Tibor Guzsvinecz, Judit Szucs
Sustainability. 2022; 14(11): 6720
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 COVID-19 and psychological distress among the general population of India: Meta-Analysis of observational studies
Suresh Sharma, Jaison Joseph, Manju Dhandapani, Abin Varghese, K Radha, Elezebeth Mathews, BijiP Varkey
Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2022; 47(2): 160
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Experiences and challenges faced by the working population during COVID-19 Lockdown: A qualitative study
ShanaShirin Najeeb, LeyannaSusan George
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2022; 11(2): 660
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Effect of an online mindfulness program on stress in Indian adults during COVID-19 pandemic: A randomized controlled preliminary study
Anirban Pal, Purnava Mukhopadhyay, Soma Datta, NidhiDawar Pal
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 64(4): 401
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Management of mental health issues in Persons with Acute COVID-19 infection and during the post-COVID phase
Sandeep Grover, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Aseem Mehra, Ajit Avasthi
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 64(8): 499
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Lifestyle changes during the Covid-19 lockdown among young adults in Kerala in terms of physical activity, sleeping habits, and perceived psychological problems: A cross-sectional study
Sithara Sivaji, PanamoottilG Vijayamohanan, PallipurathR Sreelakshmi
Journal of Health Research and Reviews. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Mental health impact of COVID-19 pandemic in India: A web-based community survey
Mamta Singh, Nitin Raut, Shipra Singh
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Efficacy of online mental health program “EmoAid” during the COVID-19 pandemic
Shilpa Gupta, Deepak Gupta, Eti Goel, Usama Rehman
Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Mental health outcome among psychiatric patients due to COVID 19 lockdown induced disruption of access to psychiatric services: A cross-sectional study
ShantiMohan Kethawath, Shagufta Rahman, Venkata Rahul, Aditya Kashyap, Harish Pinnoju, Rajshekhar Bipeta, Umashankar Molanguri
Telangana Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 8(1): 7
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Effect of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on Different Aspects of Human Life: A Review Article
Amira BOSHRA, Sharifa ALASIRY, Elsadig Y. MOHAMED, Sawsan ABDALLA, Mehrunnisha AHMED, Faizan KASHOO
Journal of International Health Sciences and Management. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 What does not Kill You Makes You Stronger: An Online Survey into Healthcare Providers’ Mental Health during Corona Pandemic
Amrita Chakraborti, Suvajit Pal
Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry. 2022; 16(1): 14
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Satisfaction with job and life and remote work in the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of perceived stress, self-efficacy and self-esteem
Blanka Kondratowicz, Dorota Godlewska-Werner, Piotr Polomski, Meetu Khosla
Current Issues in Personality Psychology. 2022; 10(1): 49
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Examining the implications of COVID19 on Mental Health Across Different Walks of Life Through the Lens of Literature Review
Ria Dutta
International Journal of Studies in Psychology. 2021; 1(2): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 Pain in Chronic Pancreatitis During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Has It Given Us a New Dimension for Treatment?
Kunal Parasar, Shantam Mohan, Aaron G John, Utpal Anand
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Association of Sociodemographic Parameters With Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Sleep Quality, Psychological Trauma, Mental Well-Being, and Resilience During the Second Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Survey From India
Tanveer Kaur, Piyush Ranjan, Avinash Chakrawarty, Keerthana Kasi, Parul Berry, Suryansh Suryansh, Archisman Mazumder, Munnoo Khan, Ashish D Upadhyay, Gaurishanker Kaloiya, Siddharth Sarkar, Vijay B Prasad
Cureus. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Study of screening of mental health status of coronavirus disease-19 confirmed noncritical patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital and a coronavirus disease care center in Ahmedabad
NimeshC Parikh, AnishaD Balchandani, DhruvH Nakum, BintalS Patel, ShreyaseeS Bhowmick, NilimaD Shah, VinodK Darji
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(6): 584
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 Neuropsychiatric Issues in Persons with COVID-19 Infection: An Online Survey from India
Ajit Avasthi, Sandeep Grover, Gautam Saha, Mrugesh Vaishnav, Parth Vaishnav, Gundugurti Prasad Rao
Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry. 2021; 15(2): 69
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Atypical Presentation of COVID-19 in a Patient with Polysubstance Use and Retroviral Positive Status
Mahesh R Gowda, Khushboo Dewani, Sunil KG Patil, Ume Hani, Shivakumar Thandavamurthy
Indian Journal of Private Psychiatry. 2021; 15(2): 98
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Psychological status of asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic patients hospitalized for COVID-19
Prateksha Golas, Uzma Hashim, Amrit Kumar, Seby Kuruthukulangara, Vivek Hande, SheilaS Mathai
Journal of Marine Medical Society. 2021; 23(1): 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Effect of COVID-19 crisis on mental health of physiotherapy students
SapnaSantosh Tiwari, Suroshree Mitra, Rachana Dabadghav
Physiotherapy - The Journal of Indian Association of Physiotherapists. 2021; 15(2): 85
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 The interaction of COVID-19 pandemic and schizophrenia
Sandeep Grover
Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour. 2021; 26(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 COVID-19 outbreak: Impact on psychological well-being of the health-care workers of a designated COVID-19 hospital
VishalkumarKanaiyalal Patel, Sunayna Pandey, ArpitMadhusudanbhai Jani, DeepakSachidanand Tiwari, FalguniBabubhai Patel, RajendraKumar Amritlal Thakrar
Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour. 2021; 26(1): 20
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 A study on the anxiety level and stress during Covid19 lockdown among the general population of West Bengal, India- A must know for primary care physicians
Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Saksham Parolia, Shubham Jana, Debarati Kundu, Digbijoy Choudhury, Nina Das, Krishnanghsu Ray, Sujit KarPurkaysatha
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(2): 978
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Tools for the evaluation of the psychological impact of COVID-19: A practical guide for Family physicians and Primary Care Practitioners
Siddharth Sarkar, Tanveer Kaur, Piyush Ranjan, Anamika Sahu, Archana Kumari
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(4): 1503
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 A cross--sectional study of mental wellbeing with practice of yoga and meditation during COVID-19 pandemic
Priyanka, SK Rasania
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(4): 1576
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 Understanding social problems during lockdown and its relationship to perceived stress - An online survey among adult residents of India
Ritu Ghosh, PulakK Jana, Saikat Bhattacharya, Sarmila Mallik
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(10): 3625
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 COVID-19 and subsequent lockdown: Adverse effects on psychological health of Indian women
SaritaK Sharma, UjwalaU Ukey, PragatiG Rathod, Suresh Ughade
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(11): 4102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 Evaluation of Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Health-Care Workers
Sandeep Grover, Aseem Mehra, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Ajit Avasthi, TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Mrugesh Vaishnav, PK Dalal, Gautam Saha, OmPrakash Singh, Kaustav Chakraborty, YC Janardran Reddy, NarenP Rao, Adarsh Tripathi, RakeshK Chadda, KK Mishra, GPrasad Rao, Vinay Kumar, Shiv Gautam, Siddharth Sarkar, Vijay Krishnan, Alka Subramanyam
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(3): 222
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 STRESS TRAP OF COVID-19 - A WEB-BASED STUDY
Seema Jain, Komal Anand, Vertika Agarwal, Harivansh Chopra, Tanveer Bano, Arun Kumar, Ganesh Singh, Chhaya Mittal, Neelam Gautam
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 2021; : 34
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 COVID-19 and manifest psychological morbidity: A case series
Parmod Kumar, Shubham Kamal, Shubhangi Tuli, Nitin Gupta
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(3): 294
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents in an urban setting in Andhra Pradesh
Shvetha Chilukuri, Srinivas Singisetti, Srikrishna Nukala, Archana Vinnakota, Abhilash Garapati, Vidya Sanapala, LaxmanRao Nambaru
Archives of Mental Health. 2021; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 A cross-sectional study of psychological distress in patients hospitalized for COVID-19
Srilakshmi Pingali, AjayKumar Joopaka, PradeepSharma Telkapalli, Molanguri Umashankar
Archives of Mental Health. 2021; 22(1): 4
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 A Well-Structured Follow-Up Program is Required after Recovery from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); Release from Quarantine is Not the End of Treatment
Keun-Mi Lee, Hae-Jin Ko, Geon Ho Lee, A-Sol Kim, Dong-Wook Lee
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(11): 2329
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
71 Prevalence of Depression among Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Beatriz Olaya, María Pérez-Moreno, Juan Bueno-Notivol, Patricia Gracia-García, Isabel Lasheras, Javier Santabárbara
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(15): 3406
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
72 Impact of COVID-19 on the Anxiety Perceived by Healthcare Professionals: Differences between Primary Care and Hospital Care
Ana C. Londońo-Ramírez, Sandro García-Pla, Purificación Bernabeu-Juan, Enrique Pérez-Martínez, Jesús Rodríguez-Marín, Carlos J. van-der Hofstadt-Román
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6): 3277
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
73 Quality of Life and Symptoms of PTSD during the COVID-19 Lockdown in Italy
Sabrina Bonichini, Marta Tremolada
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8): 4385
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
74 Perception of Threat and Psychological Impact of COVID-19 among Expatriates in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia
Majed A. Algarni, Mohammad S. Alzahrani, Yasser Alatawi, Raghad A. Alasmari, Hashem O. Alsaab, Atiah H. Almalki, Abdullah A. Alhifany, Yusuf S. Althobaiti
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12): 6650
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
75 Factors Associated with Mental Health among International Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic in South Korea
Hae Ran Kim, Eun Jung Kim
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21): 11381
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
76 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Chinese Postgraduate Students’ Mental Health
Zhengyan Liang, Derong Kang, Minqiang Zhang, Yuanlin Xia, Qing Zeng
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(21): 11542
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
77 Routines, Time Dedication and Habit Changes in Spanish Homes during the COVID-19 Lockdown. A Large Cross-Sectional Survey
Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín, José Antonio López-Bueno, Ignacio Oteiza, Teresa Cuerdo-Vilches
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22): 12176
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
78 Rethinking the Epidemiogenic Power of Modern Western Societies
Annabelle Lever, Lou Safra
Frontiers in Sociology. 2021; 6
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
79 Death Anxiety in Social Workers as a Consequence of the COVID-19 Pandemic
José Ángel Martínez-López, Cristina Lázaro-Pérez, José Gómez-Galán
Behavioral Sciences. 2021; 11(5): 61
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
80 Inner Harmony as an Essential Facet of Well-Being: A Multinational Study During the COVID-19 Pandemic
David F. Carreno, Nikolett Eisenbeck, José Antonio Pérez-Escobar, José M. García-Montes
Frontiers in Psychology. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
81 Reimagining Community Mental Health Care Services: Case Study of a Need Based Biopsychosocial Response Initiated During Pandemic
Poornima Sunder, Anu Sonia Vincent, Meenu K. Saju, Anu S. Moorthy, Godson Paulose, Roshni Robins, Anupama V. Prabhu, M. Arun, Anita Rajah, Chitra Venkateswaran
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
82 Anxiety and Insomnia Among Urban Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh: The Role of COVID-19 and Its Associated Factors
Kamrun Nahar Koly, Mosammat Ivylata Khanam, Md. Saiful Islam, Shehrin Shaila Mahmood, Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi, Daniel D. Reidpath, Fatema Khatun, Sabrina Rasheed
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021; 12
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
83 Yoga an effective strategy for self-management of stress-related problems and wellbeing during COVID19 lockdown: A cross-sectional study
Pooja Swami Sahni, Kamlesh Singh, Nitesh Sharma, Rahul Garg, Gagan Deep
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(2): e0245214
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
84 COVID-19 and psychological distress: Lessons for India
Vaijayanthee Anand, Luv Verma, Aekta Aggarwal, Priyadarshini Nanjundappa, Himanshu Rai, Ritesh G. Menezes
PLOS ONE. 2021; 16(8): e0255683
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
85 A look behind the scenes: COVID-19 impact on depression and perceived stress of UAE population
Zelal Kharaba, Sayer Al-Azzam, Ahmed Alhusban, Khawla Nuseir
Middle East Current Psychiatry. 2021; 28(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
86 Adequacy of telework spaces in homes during the lockdown in Madrid, according to socioeconomic factors and home features
Teresa Cuerdo-Vilches, Miguel Ángel Navas-Martín, Sebastiŕ March, Ignacio Oteiza
Sustainable Cities and Society. 2021; 75: 103262
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
87 Exploration of COVID-19 related fears deterring from blood donation in India
Suchet Sachdev, Kamal Kishore, Lakhvinder Singh, Divjot Singh Lamba, Rekha Hans, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Sandeep Grover, Ratti Ram Sharma
ISBT Science Series. 2021; 16(2): 147
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
88 Efficacy and Safety of Ashwagandha Root Extract on Cognitive Functions in Healthy, Stressed Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Kumarpillai Gopukumar, Shefali Thanawala, Venkateswarlu Somepalli, T. S. Sathyanaryana Rao, Vijaya Bhaskar Thamatam, Sanjaya Chauhan, Ciara Hughes
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
89 Varying Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 and Functional/Dysfunctional Coping Strategies: A Mixed-Method Approach
Parul Rishi, Suchitra Acharya, Sushovan Das, Anushka Sood
Journal of Health Management. 2021; 23(2): 226
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
90 Psychological Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in Bangladesh: Analysis of a Cross-Sectional Survey
Tanvir Abir, Uchechukwu L. Osuagwu, Nazmul Ahsan Kalimullah, Dewan Muhammad Nur-A Yazdani, Taha Husain, Palash Basak, Piwuna Christopher Goson, Abdullah Al Mamun, P. Yukthamarani Permarupan, Abul Hasnat Milton, Md Adnan Rahman, Md Lutfar Rahman, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho
Health Security. 2021; 19(5): 468
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
91 Smart shopping: the adoption of grocery shopping apps
Lee-Andra Bruwer, Nkosivile Welcome Madinga, Nqobile Bundwini
British Food Journal. 2021; ahead-of-p(ahead-of-p)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
92 Assessing the knowledge, perceptions, and mental health impact of COVID-19 among students in Rwanda
Hawa Iye Obaje, Grace Chinelo Okengwu, Jolly Josiah Kenan, Aimable Uwimana, Andre Ndayambaje, Timothy A. Carey, Rex Wong
Journal of Public Mental Health. 2021; 20(3): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
93 Effect of COVID-19 on perceived stress among Bangladeshi people
Mimma Tabassum, Md Iftakhar Parvej, Firoz Ahmed, Farzana Zafreen, Samina Sultana
Mental Health Review Journal. 2021; 26(2): 143
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
94 Effects of the COVID-19 Emergency and National Lockdown on Italian Citizens’ Economic Concerns, Government Trust, and Health Engagement: Evidence From a Two-Wave Panel Study
GUENDALINA GRAFFIGNA, LORENZO PALAMENGHI, MARIAROSARIA SAVARESE, GRETA CASTELLINI, SERENA BARELLO
The Milbank Quarterly. 2021; 99(2): 369
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
95 The invisible frontline workers: lived experiences of urban Indian mothers during COVID-19 in India
Ketoki Mazumdar, Isha Sen, Sneha Parekh
Journal of Gender Studies. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
96 Yoga and Naturopathy intervention for reducing anxiety and depression of Covid-19 patients – A pilot study
R. Jenefer Jerrin, S. Theebika, P. Panneerselvam, ST. Venkateswaran, N. Manavalan, K. Maheshkumar
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2021; 11: 100800
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
97 Glycemic parameters in patients with new-onset diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic are more severe than in patients with new-onset diabetes before the pandemic: NOD COVID India Study
Amerta Ghosh, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Coimbatore Subramanian Shanthi Rani, Saravanan Jeba Rani, Ritesh Gupta, Alka Jha, Vimal Gupta, Mohammad Shafi Kuchay, Atul Luthra, Suhail Durrani, Koel Dutta, Kanika Tyagi, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Brijendra Kumar Srivastava, Muthu Ramu, Nadiminty Ganapathi Sastry, Prasanna Kumar Gupta, Ganesan Umasankari, Ramamoorthy Jayashri, Viswanathan Mohan, Anoop Misra
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2021; 15(1): 215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
98 Prevalence of anxiety and depression in South Asia during COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Md Mahbub Hossain, Mariya Rahman, Nusrat Fahmida Trisha, Samia Tasnim, Tasmiah Nuzhath, Nishat Tasnim Hasan, Heather Clark, Arindam Das, E. Lisako J. McKyer, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Ping Ma
Heliyon. 2021; 7(4): e06677
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
99 Effects of COVID-19-related stay-at-home order on neuropsychophysiological response to urban spaces: Beneficial role of exposure to nature?
Agnieszka Olszewska-Guizzo, Anna Fogel, Nicolas Escoffier, Roger Ho
Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2021; 75: 101590
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
100 Impact of overtime working and social interaction on the deterioration of mental well-being among full-time workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: Focusing on social isolation by household composition
Misa Tomono, Takashi Yamauchi, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
Journal of Occupational Health. 2021; 63(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
101 Arts for the Blues: The development of a new evidence-based creative group psychotherapy for depression
Joanna Omylinska-Thurston, Vicky Karkou, Ailsa Parsons, Kerry Nair, Linda Dubrow-Marshall, Jennifer Starkey, Scott Thurston, Irene Dudley-Swarbrick, Surina Sharma
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. 2021; 21(3): 597
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
102 Factors associated with psychological outcomes among frontline healthcare providers of India during COVID-19 pandemic
Jaison Jacob, Vijay VR, Alwin Issac, Shine Stephen, Manju Dhandapani, Rakesh VR, Aruna Kumar Kasturi, Sam Jose, Renju Sussan Baby, Nicolas Rouben, Dhikhil CD, Naseem M, Arun TM
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 55: 102531
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
103 Trends in deaths attributable to suicide during COVID-19 pandemic and its association with alcohol use and mental disorders: Findings from autopsies conducted in two districts of India
Chittaranjan Behera, Sudhir Kumar Gupta, Swarndeep Singh, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 58: 102597
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
104 Telepsychiatry: A game-changer during Covid-19 pandemic and a wave of future psychiatry in India
Gurvinder Pal Singh
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 64: 102795
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
105 Borderline microscopic organism and lockdown impacted across the borders—global shakers
Shariq Suleman, Asim Farooqui, Pradakshina Sharma, Nitesh Malhotra, Neelam Yadav, Jagriti Narang, Md Saquib Hasnain, Amit Kumar Nayak
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
106 Lemon Tree Hotels: managing business during COVID-19
Chetan Joshi, Rita Karmakar
DECISION. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
107 Prevalence of Insomnia and Internet Dependence Amidst the COVID 19 among the Northeast Indian Population: A Preliminary Study
Sanjenbam Yaiphaba Meitei, P. S. Vaveine Pao, Kh. Dimkhoihoi Baite, Henry Konjengbam
Sleep and Vigilance. 2021; 5(2): 245
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
108 Profile of patients availing psychiatry emergency services pre and post lockdown at a tertiary care center of North India
Sandeep Grover, Devakshi Dua, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Subho Chakrabarti
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 54: 102448
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
109 “We’ve got through hard times before” : acute mental distress and coping among disadvantaged groups during COVID-19 lockdown in North India - a qualitative study
Kaaren Mathias, Meenal Rawat, Sharad Philip, Nathan Grills
International Journal for Equity in Health. 2020; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
110 Increased meaningful activity while social distancing dampens affectivity; mere busyness heightens it: Implications for well-being during COVID-19
Daniel B. Cohen, Morgan Luck, Atousa Hormozaki, Lauren L. Saling, Vedat Sar
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(12): e0244631
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
111

Psychological State and Associated Factors During the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic Among Filipinos with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Cherica A Tee, Evelyn O Salido, Patrick Wincy C Reyes, Roger C Ho, Michael L Tee
Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews. 2020; Volume 12: 215
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
112 COVID-19 Pandemic and Death Anxiety in Security Forces in Spain
Cristina Lázaro-Pérez, José Ángel Martínez-López, José Gómez-Galán, María del Mar Fernández-Martínez
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21): 7760
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
113 Change in Physical Activity, Sleep Quality, and Psychosocial Variables during COVID-19 Lockdown: Evidence from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936
Judith A. Okely, Janie Corley, Miles Welstead, Adele M. Taylor, Danielle Page, Barbora Skarabela, Paul Redmond, Simon R. Cox, Tom C. Russ
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 18(1): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
114 Covid 19 and access to mental health care – Need of increased investment
OP Singh
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 328
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
115 Combating depression in India, an experiential perspective and its implications in COVID-19 pandemic
M Kishor, Suhas Chandran
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 2020; 9(4): 301
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
116 COVID-19 crisis: Concerns about depression and obesity among adolescents in India
Megha Tandure, M Kishor
International Journal of Health & Allied Sciences. 2020; 9(4): 378
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
117 GELECEK SALGINLARA HAZIRLIKTA SAGLIK EGITIMI VE BIREYSEL DAVRANIS MODELLERI: COVID-19 ÖRNEGI
I?nci ARIKAN
Eskisehir Türk Dünyasi Uygulama ve Arastirma Merkezi Halk Sagligi Dergisi. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
118 Mental health concerns related to COVID19 outbreak in the middle-aged and elderly population: A web-based, cross-sectional survey from Haryana, North India
Jaison Joseph, Karobi Das, Suryakanti Dhal, Tamanna Sehrawat, Sweety Reshamia, Gazal Huria
Journal of Geriatric Mental Health. 2020; 7(2): 100
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
119 Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial health and well-being in South-Asian (World Psychiatric Association zone 16) countries: A systematic and advocacy review from the Indian Psychiatric Society
Debanjan Banerjee, Mrugesh Vaishnav, TS Sathyanarayana Rao, MS V K Raju, PK Dalal, Afzal Javed, Gautam Saha, KshirodK Mishra, Vinay Kumar, MukheshP Jagiwala
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 343
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
120 Psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India: Few concerns
Avinash Shukla
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(5): 591
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
121 Medical Council of India module on pandemic management: Neglecting mental health training a major lacuna
Bheemsain Tekkalaki, M Kishor
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(6): 750
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
122 When will the pandemic end?
Mrugesh Vaishnav, PK Dalal, Afzal Javed
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 330
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
123 Accelerated research for COVID-19: Methodological ruminations for internet-based research
Anindya Das
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(5): 594
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
124 Comments on psychological impact of COVID-19 lockdown: An online survey from India
Sandeep Grover, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Aseem Mehra, Ajit Avasthi, Adarsh Tripathi, Alka Subramanyan, Amrit Pattojoshi, GPrasad Rao, Gautam Saha, KK Mishra, Kaustav Chakraborty, NarenP Rao, Mrugesh Vaishnav, OmPrakash Singh, PK Dalal, RakeshK Chadda, Ravi Gupta, Shiv Gautam, Siddharth Sarkar, TS Sathyanarayana Rao, Vinay Kumar, YC Janardran Reddy
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(5): 595
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
125 Emerging mental health issues during the COVID-19 pandemic: An Indian perspective
PK Dalal, Deblina Roy, Prashant Choudhary, SujitaKumar Kar, Adarsh Tripathi
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 354
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
126 State of mental health services in various training centers in India during the lockdown and COVID-19 pandemic
Sandeep Grover, Aseem Mehra, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Ajit Avasthi, Adarsh Tripathi, Avinash D'Souza, Gautam Saha, A Jagadhisha, Mahesh Gowda, Mrugesh Vaishnav, Omprakash Singh, PK Dalal, Parmod Kumar
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(4): 363
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
127 Impact of COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the state of mental health services in the private sector in India
Sandeep Grover, Aseem Mehra, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Ajit Avasthi, Adarsh Tripathi, Avinash D'Souza, Gautam Saha, A Jagadhisha, Mahesh Gowda, Mrugesh Vaishnav, Omprakash Singh, PK Dalal, Parmod Kumar
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(5): 488
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
128 What mental health experts in Slovakia are learning from COVID-19 pandemic?
Lubomira Izakova, Dagmar Breznoscakova, Katarina Jandova, Vanda Valkucakova, Gabriela Bezakova, Jozef Suvada
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 62(9): 459
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
129 Impact on anxiety of COVID-19 and lockdown
VinaySingh Chauhan, Kaushik Chatterjee, KirtiSingh Chauhan, Jyoti Prakash, Kalpana Srivastava
Journal of Marine Medical Society. 2020; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
130 COVID-19 pandemic: A crisis for health-care workers
Sandeep Grover, Seema Rani, Aseem Mehra, Swapnajeet Sahoo
Journal of Mental Health and Human Behaviour. 2020; 25(1): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top