Year : 2017 | Volume
: 59 | Issue : 6 | Page : 146--147
|How to cite this article:|
. Marfatia Award.Indian J Psychiatry 2017;59:146-147
|How to cite this URL:|
. Marfatia Award. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2017 [cited 2021 Oct 18 ];59:146-147
Available from: https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2017/59/6/146/197003
Neuroinflammation in depression -serum cytokines as an indicator
Surg Cdr (Retd) KSHIROD K MISHRA
Prof & Head, Psychiatry, JNMC, Wardha [email protected]
Background: Dysfunction of the innate immune system leading to neuroinflammation has been increasingly implicated in patho physiology of numerous psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder.
Aims & Objectives: The study was aimed at finding-
I) the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of first episode depressive patients in comparison to healthy individuals.
II) To compare the level of serum cytokines after the treatment with conventional antidepressants.
Materials & Methods: 50 consecutive cases of first episode depressive patients diagnosed on ICD-10 diagnostic criteria were included in the study sample by purposive sampling technique. Subjects were evaluated clinically using a semi-structured Performa. The severity of depression were measured by HAM-D. Beck's Scale for Suicide Inventory was used to exclude any case with suicide ideation .Blood samples were collected from the cases prior to starting the antidepressant medication and from the control at the time of the entry for the study. Serum cytokines (IL-1B, IL-6, and TNF-Alpha) estimation was done by ELISA technique using human cytokine kits. The psychometric tests and serum cytokines level was repeated after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment with conventional antidepressants. The values obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 10
Results: Analysis of data showed significant higher values of IL-6 and TNF α in depressive patients in comparison to healthy controls. The levels of cytokines reduced significantly following the treatment.
Conclusion: There was a definite rise in the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines in depressed patients which reduce substantially following the treatment with antidepressants. Further studies in this line can be helpful for development of cytokine based therapy in depression.
Keywords: Major Depressive disorder, Interleukins, antidepressants
Myth of PTSD - Long term epidemiological data on Psychiatric Disorders from Modified cohort study following a major natural disaster in India, Gujarat earthquake, 2001
Nimesh G. Desai*, Vijender Singh, C.B. Tripathi, Pankaj Kumar, Shailesh Jha, Ajay Chauhan, Mukesh Samani, Mahesh P. Tilwani, Dhanesh K. Gupta, M.G. Jahanara, Uday K. Sinha, Ravinder Singh, Bela Shah, P.C. Joshi, Arpan Nayak
*Director, Professor Of Psychiatry, Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences (IHBAS), Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095. [email protected]
The most commonly studied & discussed psychiatric disorder, the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), is so excessively emphasized that it has become "Sine Quo Non" with disaster mental health. Literature has reported generally high, and sometimes variable, rates of PTSD in the short term & long term consequences of disasters. Many studies have reported high rates of PTSD in non-systematic hospital or field sample, in the absence of standardized methods. This paper reports on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, with specific reference to PTSD in a large epidemiological sample, across three research sites, with modified cohort design, and two stage method using GHQ and SCAN based interview in the long-term perspective of 5 to 8 years. The adult population of 23,008 studied, comprised of modified cohort which provided evidence of higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in study group (66.1/1,000) vs control group (22.6/1000), and in a highly affected population, a prevalence rate of 49.1/1000. The pilot phase had reported low rates of PTSD in quasi-random field sample (9.6/1000). As such, the pilot phase and the main study confirm the hypothesis of PTSD being low, to very low in immediate and in long term period. The paper proposes that the emphasis on PTSD as a consequence of natural disasters is a myth, in India and similar cultural settings. The implications are in terms of clinical services & public health plans for relief & rehabilitation work in disaster affected populations.
Keywords: Natural Disaster; Earthquake; Psychiatric Disorders; Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD); Epidemiology; Modified Cohort Study.
A study of suicidal behavior in adolescents in comparison to adult attempters
Suresh Kumar Pattath Narayanan, Dr.Anish P K
Departmet Of Psychiatry, Institute Of Mental Health And Neurosciences, Calicut, Kerala, [email protected]
Background: There Is A Good Deal Of Research Showing That Suicide Attempts Increase Markedly During Adolescence.
Objective: This Cross Sectional Study Compared The Demographic And Clinical Variables Of 199 Adolescent Versus 960 Adult Attempters Using A Specially Designed Questionnaire To Find Out The Potential Risk Factors In Adolescents.
Results: Significant Number Of Adolescent Attempters Were Females, Had History Of Medical Illnesses, Higher Frequency Of Certain Specific Events Related To Their Developmental Period, Had Medical Contact Within 1 Week Of Attempt And Attempted Suicide Within 1 Week After The Stressor. The Most Frequent Psychiatric Diagnosis In Adolescents Was Adjustment Disorder.
Conclusion: This Study Differentiated Adolescent Attempters From Adult Counter Parts With Certain Unique Risk Factors. Modification Of These Risk Factors Is Important In The Practical Management Of Adolescent Suicide Attempters.
Stigma experienced by patients with severe mental disorders: A nationwide multicentric study
Sandeep Grover*, Ajit Avasthi, Aakanksha Singh, Amitava Dan, Rajarishi Neogi, Darpan Kaur, Bhavesh Lakdawala , Abhijit R. Rozatkar, Naresh Nebhinani, Suravi Patra, Priya Sivashankar , Alka A. Subramanyam , Adarsh Tripathi, Ab Majid Gania, Gurvinder Pal Singh , Prakash Behere
*Additional Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160012,
Aim: To evaluate the stigma and its correlates among patients with severe mental disorders.
Methodology: Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=707), bipolar disorder (N=344) and recurrent depressive disorder (N=352) currently in clinical remission from 14 participating centres were assessed on Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS) and Participation Scale (P-Scale).
Results: Patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia experienced higher level of alienation, sterotype endorsement, discrimination experience and total stigma when compared to patients with bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder. When compared to patients with recurrent depressive disorder, patients of schizophrenia experienced higher stigma in the domain of social withdrawal too. Patients with Bipolar disorder experienced significantly higher stigma than those with recurrent depressive disorder in the domain of stigma resistance only. Overall compared to affective disorder groups, higher proportion of patients with schizophrenia reported stigma in all the domains of ISMIS. In general in all the 3 diagnostic groups stigma was associated with female gender, being unmarried, unemployed, belonging to nuclear families, rural locality, middle or upper socio-economic status, younger age, higher education, shorter duration of illness, shorter duration of treatment and younger age of onset. Higher stigma was associated with more participation restriction. Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia experience higher self stigma compared to patients with affective disorders. Higher level of stigma is experienced by patients with severe mental disorders during the early phase of illness. Stigma intervention programs must focus on patients during the initial phase of illness in order to reduce the negative consequences of stigma.
Key Words: Stigma, Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, recurrent depressive disorder, severe mental disorders, correlates