Indian Journal of PsychiatryIndian Journal of Psychiatry
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   1996| Jan-Mar  | Volume 38 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 14, 2010

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Neurodevelopmental Theories of Schizophernia : Application to Late-Onset Schizophernia
Barton W Palmer, Dilip V Jeste
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):13-22
A review of literature on the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophemia is presented, with particular attention to neurodevelopmental processes in late-onset schizophemia. Definitions of the term "neurodevelopmental" as used in schizophernia literature are first provided. Next, evidence for the developmental origins of the neuropathology in schizophemia is reviewed. This evidence includes studies of the associations between schizophemia and neurodevelopmental brain aberrations, minor physical anomalies, obstetric complications, prenatal viral exposure, childhood neuromotor abnormalities, and pandysmaturation. A brief discussion of the predominant theories about the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophemia is then provided. The concept and nature of "late-onset schizophenia "is next defined and discussed. Finally, the neurodevelopmental literature is discussed in relation to the phenomenon of late-onset schizophemia. Based on this review, we conclude that there exists a strong likelihood that late-onset schizophrenia involves neurodevelopmental processes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  648 61 -
Drug Use in A Rural Community in Bihar : Some Psychosocial Correlates
Renuka Jena, TR Shukla, Hemraj Pal
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):43-46
Drug use has been an integral part of any culture. The use depends on many factors including the availability. In the present study the drug use in a rural community of Chotanagpur Plateau in the Ranchi district of Bihar is focussed. The sample consisted of 157 inhabitants above the age of 15 yrs of the village Boreya in Kanke block. A sample of drug users was compared with nondrug users of the same community on the measures of stressful life events and locus of control. The results indicate that besides tobacco alcohol in the form of locally brewed 'handia' (rice beer) and 'mahua' (made from mahua flowers) was used by 334 (28.87%) individuals. Cannabis was frequently used (25.15%) Harder drugs were not used at all. There was an increase in stressful life events in the year prior to the use of drugs. The increase in life events was especially seen in the elderly age group (35-S0yrs). There was no difference in the locus of control scores between the users and the nonusers. The results indicate the role of significant life events in the current use of drugs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  623 70 -
Social Support, Social Dysfunction and Stressful Life Events in Neurotic Patients
Parmanand Kulbara, Rajni Chopra
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):23-29
The relationship between social support, stressful life events and psychosocial dysfunction was studied in 197 neurotic patients comprising 65 patients of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 81 of Dysthymia and 51 of Dissoiative (conversion) Disorders. It was seen that Dysthymics perceived themselves to have significantly less social support in comparison to Generalized Anxiety or Dissociative Disorders patients. Significant correlations between social support and life events and social support and dysfunction were also obtained and it was observed that lack of social support is negatively correlated with greater life stresses and dysfuction.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  522 129 -
Adverse Effects of Disulfiram and Patient Compliance
TN Srinivasan, TR Suresh, Jayaram Vasantha
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):47-50
Use of Disulfiram under supervision in well-motivated alcoholics is effective in reducing relapse rates. Several adverse effects, some of them life-threatening, have been reported due to the drug. An awareness of the adverse effects is useful to keep a follow up and sustain patient compliance with the drug. This study of 158 out patients on daily oral disulfiram revealed that though many patients report unpleasant effects most of them could not be distinguished from symptoms of alcoholism present before taking disulfiram and hence cannot be considered as adverse effects of the drug. The actual adverse symptoms were also mild and could be easily managed and were infrequent and not the common cause for poor patient compliance. The study suggests that Disulfiram with its low toxicity can be offered to patients without too much reservation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  556 85 -
Erythrocyte Aldehyde Dehydrogenase - A Potential Marker for Alcohol Dependence
Pratitna Murthy, SC Guru, SM Channabasavanna, DK Subbakrishna, Taranath Shetty
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):38-42
The present study explored the utility of erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as a peripheral marker in alcoholism. The ALDH levels in aocoholics, their first degree nonalcholic relative and controls were compared. ALDH was found to be significantly lower in alcoholics (3.38΁1.70 mU p<0.001) and their first degree relatives (4.04΁1.55 mU p<0.05) compared to controls (5.06΁1 55mU). Low ALDH levels among alcoholics persisted despite abstinence. The levels did not correlate with indices of hepatic dysfunction or with severity of alcoholism. These findings indicate that low erythrocyte ALDH may be considered as a biochemical trait marker associated with alcoholics, and the alcohol abuse would further decrease enzyme activitiy. To evaluate this proposition, logitudinal studies involving high risk progeny of alcohol dependents is being planned.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  522 42 -
Coping Behaviours in Recent Abstinence Attempt in Opioid Dependent Subjects
Hemraj Pal, BS Chavan
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):30-33
Failure of coping machanisms in handling urges when exposed to high risk situations has been posited as one of the factors associated with relapse of drug use. In the present study there has been an attempt to study the coping mechanisms used by opioid dependent subjects in a recent abstinence attempt. The sample consisted of 100 opioid dependent subjects admitted to the deaddiction centre at A.I.I.M.S. New Delhi. The subjects should have had an abstinence longer than a month's period in the 1 year prior to the study. The coping behaviours were assessed by a semistructured interview schedule based on the coping behaviors inventory of Litmen et al, (1981). The results indicate that a wide variety of cognitive and behavioural startegies are used by subjects to handle temptations when exposed to high risk situations. On an average each subject used 7.4. behaviours. Behavioural strategies were commonly employed and they were: keeping away from users, keeping in company of nonusers, working harder, avoiding places associated with use, etc. In understanding the determinants of the coping mechanisms it was seen that family type determined the use of following behaviours viz, being better off without drugs, thinking of mess resulting from drugs and saying J am well and wish to stay so. Route of drug use was important determinant for using the mechanism i.e., realizing effects on health to keep off the urges in high risk situations
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  475 51 -
Profile of Liver Dysfunction in Alchohol Dependence
NG Desai, M Vaswani, BS Chavan, BM Tripathi, N Kaw
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):34-37
Ninety two patients of alcohol dependence were studied for liver function at a specialised drug dependence treatment centre. Biochemical laboratory evidence of liver dysfunction was found in a very large number of patients, including the patients who had no clinical signs or symptoms. The findings from this retrospective study are discussed in the context of the earlier studies from other settings in India.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  459 59 -
Some Basic Considerations in the Practice of Psychotherapy in the Indian Setting
NC Surya, SS Jayaram
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):10-12
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  306 78 -
Dr. N.C. Surya - The Lone Rider
NN Wig
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):2-8
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  314 57 -
Clinical Psychiatry
AK Agarwal
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):9-9
Full text not available  [PDF]
  231 41 -
Look Back in Reverence
K Kuruvilla
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):1-1
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  220 31 -
Quality of Work Environment and its Impact on Health and Behaviour of Agricultural Scientists
K Srinivasan
Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):51-51
Full text not available  [PDF]
  146 33 -
Instructions to Contributors

Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):52-54
Full text not available  [PDF]
  70 18 -
Index - Subject & Author

Jan-Mar 1996, 38(1):273-277
Full text not available  [PDF]
  66 19 -