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   2000| July-September  | Volume 42 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 20, 2009

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A Study of Psychosocial and Clinical Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide Attempts
C. T Sudhir Kumar, R Chandrasekaran
July-September 2000, 42(3):237-242
There is a good deal of research showing that suicide attempts increase markedly during adolescence. This study aims at studying the demographic and clinical variables of adolescent suicide attempters and comparing certain potential risk factors between adolescent and adult suicide attempters. It was found that adolescents in our study sample differ significantly from adults in the levels of depression, hopelessness, lethality of attempt and stressful life events. These findings are important in the practical management of adolescent suicide attempters.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,019 474 -
Psychological Morbidity of Parents of Mentally Retarded Children
Hemant Chandorkar, PK Chakraborty
July-September 2000, 42(3):271-274
The magnitude of the problem of mental retardation in our country hardly needs any exaggeration. The psychological burden that these parents carry has been varied. The present study was undertaken to delineate the psychological problems of parents of mentally retarded children and to establish whether these problems were more prevalent in the parents of mentally retarded children than in the parents of normal children. The material comprised of three groups of subjects: The first group comprised of parents of twenty students of a school for mentally handicapped children; the second group comprised of parents of ten mentally retarded children who were not institutionalised or attended any special school for mentally retarded in the past: the third group comprised of parents of twenty normal school going children. The results of the study conclusively proved that the parents of mentally retarded children had a higher prevalence of psychological ' morbidity than the parents of normal children. The commonest psychiatric disorder was Dysthymia followed by Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Moderate Depression.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,103 295 -
A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Efficacy ff an Ethanolic Extract of Withania Somnifera
Chittaranjan Andrade, Anitha Aswath, SK Chaturvedi, M Srinivasa, R Raguram
July-September 2000, 42(3):295-301
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy an ethanolic extract of Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), in patients with ICD-10 anxiety disorders. The sample comprised 39 subjects, of whom 20 received the drug and 19 received placebo. The two groups were sociodemographically and clinically similar at baseline. At 2 and 6 weeks follow-up, data from approximately 85% of patients in each group were available for analysis. Statistical trends favouring the drug were observed at both time points. At 6 weeks, significantly more patients met a priori response criteria in the drug group (88.2%) as compared with the placebo group (50%). The drug was well-tolerated and did not occasion more adverse effects than did placebo. It is concluded that this ethanolic extract of Withania somnifera has useful anxiolytic potential and merits further investigation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  1,064 303 -
A Study of Thyroid Hormones (T 3 , T 4 & TSH) in Patients of Depression
Jalaj Saxena, P. N Singh, Uma Srivastava, A. Q Siddiqui
July-September 2000, 42(3):243-246
In this study, 32 unmedicated patients of unipolar depression were included and blood samples were analysed for T 3 , T 4 and TSH. These were compared with age and sex matched controls. Subnormal T 3 and T 4 levels in 90.6% and 9.3% respectively and an increase of TSH levels in 18.7% of the total patients was observed in this study. The patients were classified into mild, moderate and severe grade of depression as per DSM-IV criteria. Of the mild 66.6%, 93.3% of moderate and all of the severe grade depression patients had low T 3 levels. Of the moderately depressed patients 13.3% and 9.0% of severe depression patients had low T 4 levels. TSH was increased than normal in 54.5% of the patients and all these patients were of severe grade. ANOVA with multiple comparison testing shows significant decrease in levels of T 3 (F 229 >3.33) and significant increase in TSH levels (F 229 >3.33) at 5% level of significance amongst mild, moderate and severe grade of depression patients. This study suggests a subclinical hypothyroidism in most of the patients which could lead to nonresponsiveness to the conventional antidepressant therapy. Therefore, evaluation of thyroid status prior to antidepressant therapy and subsequent thyroid hormone substitution in subclinical hypothyroid patients is suggested.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  792 289 -
Prevalence and Pattern of Substance Abuse at Bandardewa, A Border Area of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh
N. C Hazarika, D Biswas, R. K Phukan, D Hazarika, J Mahanta
July-September 2000, 42(3):262-266
A total of 312 persons aged 10 years and above were interviewed to collect information about their habits of taking tobacco, alcohol and other substances. The study reveals that 40.4% of the respondents used tobacco irrespective of their using pattern, with significant difference between sexes (p<0.001). Among tobacco users 58.2% were only tobacco chewers. 26.3% were smokers and 15% of them were practicing both the modes. 61.4% among housewives were tobacco users. Prevalence of alcohol use was 36.5% among the respondents. Alcohol use among males (39.5%) was slightly higher than females (32.6%). A significant association of alcohol users (p<0.01) was observed with level of educational status. 3.4% of the study population were found to be habituated with substance abuse other than tobacco and alcohol. Percentage of injecting drug users was found to be 1.28%. A very small number (0.64%) was also found to be addicted to petrol inhalation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  887 170 -
Diagnosing Dementia Due to Alzemier's Disease : Clinical Perspective
Nilamadhab Kar, Somnath Sengupta, P.S.V.N. Sharma
July-September 2000, 42(3):267-270
The diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease on clinical grounds is made by exclusion of other etiologies. The differential diagnoses of other subtypes considered along with dementia of Alzheimer's disease and the clinical process involved were studied in a tertiary level health care set up. Out of 39 patients with dementia admitted over 12 years it was found that a differential diagnoses of other subtype were considered along with dementia of Alzheimer's disease in 13 cases, while 15 cases had no such association. Most frequently associated category was vascular dementia in 30.8%. The clinical difficulties in differentiating dementia in Alzheimer's disease are discussed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  872 114 -
A Study of Alcohol Related Physical Diseases in General Hospital Patients
K Srinivasan, Mary Kutty Augustine
July-September 2000, 42(3):247-252
We studied the prevalence of harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related diseases in newly admitted patients in a general hospital. Two hundred and ninety seven patients were screened for alcohol use with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Sixty one subjects (21%) had harmful pattern of alcohol consumption. Of these twenty eight patients (9.4%) had alcohol-related diseases, while in 33 patients (11.1%) we did not find any association between alcohol use and hospital diagnoses. Physicians' referral rate for problem drinking was low. The findings indicate the need for an active consultation service to address the specific issue of harmful drinking among patients admitted in general hospitals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  762 197 -
Risperidone Versus Haloperidol in Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder
Bijoy Pratim Chaudhuri, Dipesh Bhagabati, Dipanjali Medhi
July-September 2000, 42(3):280-290
The mechanism of action of a relatively new antipsychotic drug-Risperidone differs from conventional antipsychotics like Haloperidol. We compared low dosages of Risperidone with near equivalent dosages of Haloperidol in first episode drug naive Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder. A single blind randomised four-week study protocol was employed. Highly significant and comparable efficacy as assessed by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale was seen at the end of the Study protocol in both the groups. Risperidone had significantly, an early onset of action on some of the positive as well as negative symptoms with less incidence of Extrapyramidal Symptoms in comparison to Haloperidol. We conclude that Risperidone may represent a potential useful first line agent in the treatment of Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  833 94 -
Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Schizophrenia with Fluoxetine
Vivek Agarwal, KM Agarwal
July-September 2000, 42(3):291-294
Obsessive compulsive symptoms have been reported to occur in high proportion in schizophrenia. Presence of obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia has poor prognostic significance. Because of the antiobsessional effect of the fluoxetine, present study was undertaken as preliminary investigation in cases of schizophrenia with obsessive compulsive symptoms. We conducted an open trial of 12 weeks duration in which fluoxetine was added up to 80 mg to the maintenance neuroleptic medication of outpatients of schizophrenia with obsessive compulsive symptoms diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Five patients showed a significant reduction in scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale. Two patients did not show any response. Fluoxetine was well tolerated by all the patients. The positive findings of this preliminary investigation supports the further investigations of fluoxetine as potential treatment in the obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  783 132 -
Effects of Zopicloone and Lorazepam on ECT Seizure Duration : Clinical Implications of Findings from an Animal Model
Chittaranjan Andrade, Kishore P Reddy, BS Srihari, S Sudha, Suresh Chandra
July-September 2000, 42(3):308-311
Lorazepam is commonly prescribed to treat insomnia in depressed patients who receive electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); however, lorazepam may interfere with ECT seizure parameters, and may thereby compromise the efficacy of the treatment. This study therefore sought to assess whether zopicione, a hypnotic agent, interferes less with the ECT seizure. For ethical reasons, the study utilized an animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group) received either zopicione (1.5 mg/ kg), lorazepam (0.2 mg/kg), or a placebo equivalent. After 30 minutes, an electroconvulsive shock was administered to the rats. It was observed that the motor seizure duration but not the total motoric phase was significantly attenuated by zopicione. Lorazepam did not impact significantly upon either seizure measure. It is concluded that zopicione may be a suitable hypnotic for patients receiving ECT only if sufficient time is allowed for the drug to be substantially washed out of the body.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  804 107 -
Of the Efficacy and Adverse Effect Profile of Sustained-Release Alprazolam
Chittaranjan Andrade, Anitha Aswath, SK Chaturvedi, R Raguram, Ajit Bhide
July-September 2000, 42(3):302-307
In a double-blind, prospective study, 40 patients diagnosed with DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and stabilized on alprazolam therapy were randomized to receive the same dose of either conventional or sustained-released alprazolam for two weeks, followed by the other formulation of alprazolam in an identical dose for a further two weeks. Conventional alprazolam was administered thrice daily while the sustained-release formulation was administered once-daily, in the morning. Thirty four patients completed the study. Recruitment into the study was associated with a significant decrease in all measures of illness severity; however, no efficacy differences between the two forms of alprazolam were observed. Adverse effects, specifically insomnia, were reported more with the sustained-release formulation. It is concluded that once-daily sustained-release alprazolam is as effective as the conventional form of the drug, and may be preferable because of a wide range of advantages; in this study, the higher incidence of adverse effects with the sustained-release drug was probably an artefact of the experimental design, which fostered a (nighttime) state of partial drug withdrawal.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  810 82 -
General Hospital Psychiatry : Cost of One Visit
Gopala P Sarma
July-September 2000, 42(3):258-261
An analysis of patients attending general hospital psychiatry out-patient (OP) showed that cost of one visit was Rs. 201/- Management's contribution of the total expenditure was 68% and patients' 32%. Salaries accounted for the maximum-48%. This was followea by loss of earnings- 17%. Drugs accounted for less than 10%. If MCI norms are followed, cost of a visit would increase by 61%, drug supply and number of patient's visits remaining the same.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  782 96 -
Relapse Precipitants in Opiate Addiction : Assessment in Community Treatment Setting
Hem Raj, R Ray, Brahm Prakash
July-September 2000, 42(3):253-257
Drug and alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder so that there is a need for continued care to prevent relapses. Relapse is generally understood as a return to earlier pattern of use for a drug after a period abstinence. The factors leading to relapse can be intra-psychic and interpersonal. In an attempt to understand the factors leading to first use and relapse in opioid dependence this study was conducted in a community treatment setting at the De-addiction centre of All India Institute of Medical Sciences. The sample consisted of 25 consecutive subjects with opioid dependence who had used the opioid after a period of 3 weeks of self reported abstinence in the 6 months prior to assessment. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to interview the subjects. The results showed that about 2/3rds of the sample had heroin dependence whereas the rest had buprenorphine dependence. After the first use, which occurred after a mean abstinence of 16.4 weeks. 19/25 subjects progressed to regular use (relapse) within a mean period of 8.7 days. The reasons for first use and regular use were almost the same and the common reasons were sleep disturbances, body ache and urges to take the drug. Some subjects reported sadness, family conflict and peer influences also as reasons for first as well as regular use. This preliminary study found that the factors leading to first use and regular use in our subjects are the same and that very soon after the first use the regular use ensues thus interventions that focus on preventing first use need to be emphasised.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  704 113 -
Role of HLA Class-I Antigens in Delusional Disorder
Monojit Debnath, Sujit K Das, Pravati Ghosh, Bichitra Birya Mandal, Tapas K Chaudhuri
July-September 2000, 42(3):275-279
The investigation was conducted to find out whether there is any association between delusional disorder and HLA antigens. The sample comprised 50 patients with delusional disorder and 282 control samples collected from normal controls. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of A3 antigen of the locus A are significantly higher. In case of HLA - B locus significantly higher frequency of B5 and B21 antigens have also been observed. The present study shows that there may be some association of HLA class-1 antigens with delusional disorder.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  703 77 -
Stress-Induced Cyclical Hypreprolactinemia
K Jagadheesan, Jitendra Kumar, Haque S Nizamie
July-September 2000, 42(3):317-319
Both hyperprolactinemia and depressive disorder are known manifestations of hypothyroidism. However, hyperprolactinemia with overt symptomatology per se has not been reported to precede all episodes of organic depressive disorder. We report a similar presentation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  632 69 -
Wilsons Disease Presenting with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Harpreet Duggal, Haque S Nizamie
July-September 2000, 42(3):312-316
Wilson's disease, a disorder of copper metabolism, is known to be associated with psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatrists see about 20% of these cases before they are labeled as Wilson's disease. Reports of these patients treated mistakenly as primary psychiatric illnesses exist in literature. This report thus emphasizes a thorough underpinning in this disease on the part of psychiatrists in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis at first contact. Besides this, the emergence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a case of Wilson's disease is described, which is a rare association. Finally, the authors discuss the role of basal ganglia in obsessive-compulsive disorder.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  598 81 -
A Manual of Clinical Psychiatry
MS Bhatia
July-September 2000, 42(3):324-324
Full text not available  [PDF]
  527 88 -
Somatisation : Nosology to Biology
RK Chadda
July-September 2000, 42(3):225-236
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  431 98 -
Psychological Manifestations of Aging
JK Trivedi
July-September 2000, 42(3):223-224
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  385 104 -
Psychopharmacology Update
PK Chakraborthy
July-September 2000, 42(3):323-323
Full text not available  [PDF]
  340 58 -
Psychological Factors in Atypical Chest Pain
Nilamadhab Kar, K Varuni
July-September 2000, 42(3):321-321
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  264 29 -
Malay Dave, HS Dhavale
July-September 2000, 42(3):321-322
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  234 20 -
Priority Issues in Forensic Psychiatry
Jagadisha , D Venugopal, N Murali
July-September 2000, 42(3):320-321
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  165 68 -