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   2010| September  | Volume 52 | Issue 7  
    Online since September 15, 2010

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An overview of Indian research in depression
Sandeep Grover, Alakananda Dutt, Ajit Avasthi
September 2010, 52(7):178-188
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69231  PMID:21836676
Depression as a disorder has always been a focus of attention of researchers in India. Over the last 50-60 years, large number of studies has been published from India addressing various aspects of this commonly prevalent disorder. The various aspects studied included epidemiology, demographic and psychosocial risk factor, neurobiology, symptomatology, comorbidity, assessment and diagnosis, impact of depression, treatment related issues and prevention of depression in addition to the efficacy and tolerability of various antidepressants. Here, we review data on various aspects of depression, originating from India.
  20,231 2,584 1
Substance use and addiction research in India
Pratima Murthy, N Manjunatha, BN Subodh, Prabhat Kumar Chand, Vivek Benegal
September 2010, 52(7):189-199
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69232  PMID:21836677
Substance use patterns are notorious for their ability to change over time. Both licit and illicit substance use cause serious public health problems and evidence for the same is now available in our country. National level prevalence has been calculated for many substances of abuse, but regional variations are quite evident. Rapid assessment surveys have facilitated the understanding of changing patterns of use. Substance use among women and children are increasing causes of concern. Preliminary neurobiological research has focused on identifying individuals at high risk for alcohol dependence. Clinical research in the area has focused primarily on alcohol and substance related comorbidity. There is disappointingly little research on pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. Course and outcome studies emphasize the need for better follow-up in this group. While lack of a comprehensive policy has been repeatedly highlighted and various suggestions made to address the range of problems caused by substance use, much remains to be done on the ground to prevent and address these problems. It is anticipated that substance related research publications in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry will increase following the journal having acquired an 'indexed' status.
  19,848 2,832 10
An overview of Indian research in anxiety disorders
JK Trivedi, Pawan Kumar Gupta
September 2010, 52(7):210-218
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69234  PMID:21836680
Anxiety is arguably an emotion that predates the evolution of man. Its ubiquity in humans, and its presence in a range of anxiety disorders, makes it an important clinical focus. Developments in nosology, epidemiology and psychobiology have led to significant advancement in our understanding of the anxiety disorders in recent years. Advances in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy of these disorders have brought realistic hope for relief of symptoms and improvement in functioning to patients. Neurotic disorders are basically related to stress, reaction to stress (usually maladaptive) and individual proneness to anxiety. Interestingly, both stress and coping have a close association with socio-cultural factors. Culture can effect symptom presentation, explanation of the illness and help-seeking. Importance given to the symptoms and meaning assigned by the physician according to their cultural background also differs across culture. In this way culture can effect epidemiology, phenomenology as well as treatment outcome of psychiatric illness especially anxiety disorders. In this review an attempt has been made to discuss such differences, as well as to reflect the important areas in which Indian studies are lacking. An attempt has been made to include most Indian studies, especially those published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry.
  21,208 1,363 1
Role of non-governmental organizations in mental health in India
R Thara, Vikram Patel
September 2010, 52(7):389-395
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69276  PMID:21836712
The paucity of treatment facilities and psychiatrists in the Government sector has widened the treatment gap in mental health. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a significant role in the last few decades in not only helping bridge this gap, but also by creating low cost replicable models of care. NGOs are active in a wide array of areas such as child mental health, schizophrenia and psychotic conditions, drug and alcohol abuse, dementia etc. Their activities have included treatment, rehabilitation, community care, research, training and capacity building, awareness and lobbying. This chapter outlines the activities of NGOs in India. This is a revised version of the chapter in the book on mental health to be brought out by Government of India.
  11,701 1,190 5
Indian research on suicide
Lakshmi Vijayakumar
September 2010, 52(7):291-296
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69255  PMID:21836697
The suicide rate in India is 10.3. In the last three decades, the suicide rate has increased by 43% but the male female ratio has been stable at 1.4 : 1. Majority (71%) of suicide in India are by persons below the age of 44 years which imposes a huge social, emotional and economic burden. Fifty four articles on suicides have been published in IJP. Several studies reveal that suicidal behaviours are much more prevalent than what is officially reported. Poisoning, hanging and self immolation (particularly women) were the methods to commit suicide. Physical and mental illness, disturbed interpersonal relationships and economic difficulties were the major reasons for suicide. The vulnerable population was found to be women, students, farmers etc. A social and public health response in addition to a mental health response is crucial to prevent suicidal behaviour in India.
  10,691 1,818 13
Indian scales and inventories
S Venkatesan
September 2010, 52(7):378-385
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69273  PMID:21836709
This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines.
  11,022 1,341 2
Indian psychiatric epidemiological studies: Learning from the past
Suresh Bada Math, Ravindra Srinivasaraju
September 2010, 52(7):95-103
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69220  PMID:21836725
The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in India based on the data published from 1960 to 2009. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed, Indian Journal of Psychiatry website and MEDLARS using search terms "psychiatry" "prevalence", "community", and "epidemiology" was done along with the manual search of journals and cross-references. Retrieved articles were systematically selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders varying from 9.5 to 370/1000 population in India. These varying prevalence rates of mental disorders are not only specific to Indian studies but are also seen in international studies. Despite variations in the design of studies, available data from the Indian studies suggests that about 20% of the adult population in the community is affected with one or the other psychiatric disorder. Mental healthcare priorities need to be shifted from psychotic disorders to common mental disorders and from mental hospitals to primary health centers. Increase in invisible mental problems such as suicidal attempts, aggression and violence, widespread use of substances, increasing marital discord and divorce rates emphasize on the need to prioritize and make a paradigm shift in the strategies to promote and provide appropriate mental health services in the community. Future epidemiological research need to focus on the general population from longitudinal prospective involving multi-centers with assessment of disability, co-morbidity, functioning, family burden and quality of life.
  9,707 1,511 6
An overview of Indian research in obsessive compulsive disorder
Y. C. Janardhan Reddy, Naren P Rao, Sumant Khanna
September 2010, 52(7):200-209
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69233  PMID:21836679
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered a relatively rare disorder until about two decades ago. Since then, considerable advance has been made in understanding the various aspects of OCD that include epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, biology and treatment. In the last one decade, there has also been interest in a group of related disorders called obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. There is substantial research from India on various aspects of OCD, particularly from the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. We attempt to review all the relevant Indian data on OCD.
  9,421 1,189 1
Training and National deficit of psychiatrists in India - A critical analysis
M Thirunavukarasu, P Thirunavukarasu
September 2010, 52(7):83-88
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69218  PMID:21836723
India is the second most populous country in the world, with an estimated current population of 1.17 billion. This article aims to estimate the deficit of psychiatrists in India in relation to epidemiological burden of mental illness, propose short-term and long-term strategies to tackle the deficit and emphasize the importance of modifying the curriculum of undergraduate medical education to enable the proposed strategies. With 6.5% prevalence of serious mental disorder, the average national deficit of India is estimated to be 77%. More than one-third of the population has more than 90% deficit of psychiatrists. The authors estimated that the undergraduate medical curriculum devotes only 1.4% of lecture time and 3.8-4.1% of internship time to psychiatry, thereby leaving the general practitioners and the non-psychiatrist specialists unprepared to competently deal with mental illness in their practice. We propose short and long-term strategies to manage this deficit of psychiatrists.
  9,361 651 3
History of psychiatry in India
Haque S Nizamie, Nishant Goyal
September 2010, 52(7):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69195  PMID:21836719
History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the factual information in each period starting from the Vedic era and culminating in the post independence period.
  8,334 1,466 -
An overview of Indian research in schizophrenia
Parmanand Kulhara, Ruchita Shah, KR Aarya
September 2010, 52(7):159-172
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69229  PMID:21836674
The Indian Journal of Psychiatry published three articles in its first issue way back in 1958. Since then, it has steadily published more than 200 papers on one or the other aspect of schizophrenia. From rudimentary research methodology and descriptive approach, schizophrenia research, as published in the Journal, seems to have come of age with more and more sophisticated research designs and methodologies. Our ardent researchers have made significant contributions in the understanding of this riddle called schizophrenia. Notable contributions have been made in the field of epidemiology, course and outcomes and phenomenology of this disorder. However, research in psycho-social rehabilitation of schizophrenia and related areas is sparse and sporadic. The need to conduct research that impacts health policies and planning of services for this disorder is evident and our researchers would do well to provide impetus in these areas.
  6,676 1,405 -
Indian culture and psychiatry
Shiv Gautam, Nikhil Jain
September 2010, 52(7):309-313
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69259  PMID:21836701
'Culture' is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management.
  6,596 975 1
Sexual variation in India: A view from the west
Gurvinder Kalra, Susham Gupta, Dinesh Bhugra
September 2010, 52(7):264-268
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69244  PMID:21836691
Sexual variation has been reported across cultures for millennia. Sexual variation deals with those facets of sexual behavior which are not necessarily pathological. It is any given culture that defines what is abnormal and what is deviant. In scriptures, literature and poetry in India same sex love has been described and explained in a number of ways. In this paper we highlight homosexual behavior and the role of hijras in the Indian society, among other variations. These are not mental illnesses and these individuals are not mentally ill. Hence the role of psychiatry and psychiatrists has to be re-evaluated. Attitudes of the society and the individual clinicians may stigmatize these individuals and their behavior patterns. Indian psychiatry in recent times has made some progress in this field in challenging attitudes, but more needs to be done in the 21 st century. We review the evidence and the existing literature.
  6,880 656 1
Indian research on disaster and mental health
Nilamadhab Kar
September 2010, 52(7):286-290
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69254  PMID:21836696
The primary source for this annotation on disaster mental health research is the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Key words like disasters, earthquake, cyclone, tsunami and flood were searched from its electronic database and relevant articles are discussed. The cross-referenced articles and relevant researches conducted on disasters in India which are published elsewhere were the secondary sources of information. There have been many epidemiological studies and only a few interventional studies on disasters in India. Prevalence figures of psychiatric disorders varied considerably across studies, secondary to nature and severity of disaster, degree of loss, support available and probably also due to the study methodology. Suggestions for intervention included pre-disaster planning, training of disaster workers, utilization of community-level volunteers as counselors, and strengthening existing individual, social and spiritual coping strategies. There is a need for more longitudinal follow-up studies and interventional studies.
  6,746 722 1
Psychotherapy in India
L. S. S. Manickam
September 2010, 52(7):366-370
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69270  PMID:21836707
The articles that appeared in Indian Journal of Psychiatry were related to different areas of psychotherapy. Case reports dealt with a wide variety of cases. The review papers focused on the suitability of psychotherapy in the Indian context, different approaches in psychotherapy, psychotherapy training and supervision. Psychotherapy has been viewed very close to faith orientation. There were attempts to identify the indigenous concepts that are applicable to psychotherapy. Empirical studies are low in number. Concerted effort is needed to generate interest in psychotherapy, conduct more research on evidence-based therapies as well as on psychotherapeutic process variables.
  6,358 924 2
Indian research on sleep disorders
Nilesh Shah, Abha Bang, Aparna Bhagat
September 2010, 52(7):255-259
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69242  PMID:21836688
Literature on sleep disorders from our country, India, can mainly be found in the Indian journal of Sleep medicine, Indian Journal of psychiatry, The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology and certain other journals and books. The article highlights the contribution of various Indian doctors in the field of sleep disorders, which includes review articles, prevalence studies, studies on etiology and treatment options, case reports and a couple of case control studies. Also included are studies on various sleep related syndromes as well as studies about awareness and knowledge of sleep disorders amongst the medical fraternity. This is a humble attempt to compile the rich data available in the country on sleep disorders in order to aid further research in the field.
  6,379 759 -
An overview of Indian research in bipolar mood disorder
Prasad G Rao
September 2010, 52(7):173-177
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69230  PMID:21836675
This review has been done after careful research of articles published in indian journal of psychiatry with the search words of manic depressive psychosis and bipolar mood disorder. Many articles in the following areas are included: 1) Etiology: genetic studies: 2) Etiology - neuro psychological impairment: 3) Adult bipolar disorder 4) Epidemological 5) Clinical picture - phenomenology: 6) Course of bipolar mood disorder: 7) Juvenile onset bipolar affective disorder 8) Secondary mania: 9) Clinical variables and mood disorders: 10) Disability: 11) Comorbidity: 12) Treatment: biological 13) Recent evidence: 14) Pharmacological evidence in special population. Though there seems to be significant contribution, there are still lot of areas which need careful intervention. The findings in various studies from the indian point of view are reviewed.
  5,963 837 -
Indian Journal of Psychiatry and psychiatric research in India: Past, Present and Future
Ajai R Singh
September 2010, 52(7):13-18
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69197  PMID:21836669
Commendable work has been done in psychiatric research in India as it moves in tandem with contemporary trends abroad. Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP), as its flag-ship publication, has mirrored this trend faithfully down the decades. Stalwarts and icons of Indian psychiatry have set Indian research firmly on this course. A systematic appraisal of psychiatric research in India shows that most work is replicative, some of it corrective at the local level, and very little that is original and corrective at the international level. Opinion and policy makers, including IJP and research departments at colleges and universities, must endeavor to steer the course towards trend-setting and original work emanating from India, even as we do not neglect replicative work, of which we are masters.
  6,326 414 -
Understanding and managing somatoform disorders: Making sense of non-sense
Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Varghese P Punnoose
September 2010, 52(7):240-245
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69239  PMID:21836685
Somatization is a clinical and public health problem as it can lead to social dysfunction, occupational difficulties and increased healthcare use. Hence understanding somatoform disorders is of paramount importance, especially so in developing countries like India. This paper discusses the history and evolution of the concept of somatization and somatoform disorders, etiological considerations, classification, assessment, diagnosis and clinical management. Research from India, controversies and criticisms and future perspectives are mentioned. A new model to understand functional somatic symptoms, in Indian setting is also proposed.
  5,940 757 2
Sexuality research in India: An update
Om Prakash, TS Sathyanarayana Rao
September 2010, 52(7):260-263
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69243  PMID:21836690
This review provides the available evidence on sexual dysfunctions in India. Most of the studies have concentrated on male sexual dysfunction and hardly a few have voiced the sexual problems in females. Erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PME) and combinations of ED and PME appear to be main dysfunctions reported in males. Dhat syndrome remains an important diagnosis reported in studies from North India. There is a paucity of literature on management issues with an emergent need to conduct systematic studies in this neglected area so that the concerns of these patients can be properly dealt with.
  5,658 757 2
Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India
Priyavadan Chandrakant Shastri, Jay P Shastri, Dimple Shastri
September 2010, 52(7):219-223
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69235  PMID:21836681
The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address.
  5,281 937 2
Disabilities research in India
P Kasthuri, H Chandrashekar, C Naveen Kumar, NR Prashanth
September 2010, 52(7):281-285
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69252  PMID:21836695
The objective of this paper is to review all articles related to psychiatric disability that have been published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry since its inception till date. We have also added up some more relevant literature in the area of mental disability of Indian psychiatric patients. Finally the article ends up with discussion related to challenges associated with mental disability, persons with Disability Act and future directions in the area of psychiatric disability.
  5,174 828 -
Indian research on aging and dementia
KS Shaji, VP Jithu, KS Jyothi
September 2010, 52(7):148-152
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69227  PMID:21836672
All the articles published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP) from 1958 to 2009 on aging, dementia and other mental health issues of late life were systematically reviewed. There were only a limited number of research articles on dementia in the IJP. Most of the Indian studies on dementia were published elsewhere. People above the age of 60 years constitute about 5% of patients seen in tertiary care settings. High prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was reported among community resident older people. Depression was the commonest mental health problem in late life. We need to develop community-based interventions for management of common conditions like depression in late life. The effectiveness of these interventions needs to be established. It is important to identify risk factors for depression and dementia in our population. We could then try and modify these factors to reduce the prevalence of these conditions.
  5,023 809 1
Psychiatric rehabilitation
H Chandrashekar, NR Prashanth, P Kasthuri, S Madhusudhan
September 2010, 52(7):278-280
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69250  PMID:21836694
Psychiatric rehabilitation is an important component in the management of the mentally ill. This article presents a selective review of the publications in this journal. Questions addressed in this review range from assessment of rehabilitation needs to different rehabilitative approaches. Although the number of publications providing the answers is meager, there are innovative initiatives. There is a need for mental health professionals to publish the models they follow across the country.
  4,937 818 -
Cognitive psychiatry in India
PK Dalal, T Sivakumar
September 2010, 52(7):128-135
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69224  PMID:21836668
Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.
  5,076 603 -
Research on antidepressants in India
Ajit Avasthi, Sandeep Grover, Munish Aggarwal
September 2010, 52(7):341-354
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69263  PMID:21836704
Data suggests that antidepressants are useful in the management of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders, impulse control disorders, enuresis, aggression and some personality disorders. Research focusing on the usefulness of antidepressants in India has more or less followed the trends seen in the West. Most of the studies conducted in India have evaluated various antidepressants in depression. In this article, we review studies conducted in India on various antidepressants. The data suggests that antidepressants have been evaluated mainly in the acute phase treatment and rare studies have evaluated the efficacy in continuation phase treatment.
  4,984 569 -
Research on antipsychotics in India
Ajit Avasthi, Munish Aggarwal, Sandeep Grover, Mohd Khalid Rasheed Khan
September 2010, 52(7):317-340
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69261  PMID:21836703
Antipsychotic as a class of medications became available for treatment of various psychiatric disorders in the early 1950's. Over the last 60 years many antipsychotics have become available. In line with the west, Indian researchers have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in various conditions. Additionally, researchers have also evaluated the important safety and tolerability issues. Here, we review data originating from India in the form of drug trials, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of antipsychotics. Additionally, data with respect to other important treatment related issues is discussed.
  4,752 595 -
An overview of Indian research in personality disorders
Pratap Sharan
September 2010, 52(7):250-254
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69241  PMID:21836687
Personality disorders have significant, but often unrealized, public health importance. The present review summarizes the published work on personality disorders in the Indian population or by Indian researchers residing in the country. Researchers who have worked on assessment methodology in India have demonstrated that clinical diagnosis has a low reliability when compared with semi-structured interviews; and have attempted to increase the feasibility of the standardized use of International Personality Disorder Examination, a semi-structured interview developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Studies on epidemiology demonstrate that none of the general population studies have employed standardized interviews, and hence, they grossly underestimate the prevalence of personality disorders in the community. The clinical epidemiology studies have employed questionnaires and interviews developed in the West, mostly without local adaptations, with discrepant results. However, these studies show that personality disorders are common in the clinical population and that rates vary across sub populations. While, there are a few reports attesting the theoretical importance of the role of culture in the formation and expression of personality disorders, empirical literature from India in this area is scanty. Similarly, there are few reports on the treatment of personality disorders, while, important areas such as service delivery, etiology, and validity of personality disorders, are unaddressed. The study of personality disorder in India is maturing, with researchers showing increased familiarity with the methodological nuances of this complex area of research.
  4,553 585 -
HIV and mental health: An overview of research from India
Nishanth Jayarajan, Prabha S Chandra
September 2010, 52(7):269-273
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69245  PMID:21836692
HIV/AIDS has gained prominence in India as a growing public health issue. There is a complex but significant interaction between mental health and HIV/AIDS. HIV affects mental health by its direct neurobiological action, the impact of having the illness, by its treatment including that for opportunistic infections and by its impact on the family. In addition, substance use and mental illness as vulnerability factors add to the complexity of assessment, differential diagnosis and management. This paper reviews literature published in India on the topic.
  4,428 611 2
Research on electroconvulsive therapy in India: An overview
BN Gangadhar, Vivek H Phutane, Jagadisha Thirthalli
September 2010, 52(7):362-365
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69268  PMID:21836706
The contribution of researchers from India in the field of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been substantial. Over 250 papers have been published by authors from India in the past five decades on this issue; about half of these have appeared in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. This article summarizes the papers on ECT research that have appeared in the Journal. A bulk of these articles has focused on establishing the efficacy in different disorders. Considerable numbers of papers describe refinement in the ECT procedure, including anesthetic modification, ECT machine and EEG monitoring. Papers on neurobiology of ECT and long-term follow-up of ECT-treated patients form a minority. Despite the decline in the use of ECT across the globe, papers on ECT have only increased in the recent decades in the Journal.
  4,379 599 -
Early intervention in psychotic disorders: Challenges and relevance in the Indian context
Matcheri S Keshavan, Amresh Shrivastava, Bangalore N Gangadhar
September 2010, 52(7):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69228  PMID:21836673
Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the concept of early intervention (EI) in psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia. Several lines of research underlie this emerging paradigm shift: (a) an increasingly well-established association between the duration of prolonged untreated illness and poor outcome; (b) evidence of progressive neurobiological changes in the early course of schizophrenia both in the pre-psychotic and psychotic phases, as evidenced by brain imaging studies in schizophrenia; and (c) emerging data, albeit preliminary, suggesting the efficacy and effectiveness of EI programs in improving the outcome in these patients. Mental health service systems across the globe, including Asian countries, have been incorporating specialized early intervention programs. However, literature on EI in the Indian setting is relatively sparse. In this article, we will review the rationale and approaches to EI and the application of these approaches to the Indian context, in light of the available literature. We also examine the constraints in the implementation of EI. Controlled data are needed to evaluate EI and the roadblocks to them, in order to implement EI in the resource-strapped mental health service settings in India.
  4,545 430 4
Indian contribution to behavior therapy
K Kuruvilla
September 2010, 52(7):371-377
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69271  PMID:21836708
Publication of papers related to psycho-social interventions in general and Behavior Therapy, in particular, in Indian Journal of Psychiatry has been limited. Though the first paper related to Behavior Therapy was published in 1952, a manual search of all available issues of the journal from 1949 showed that only 42 papers related to Behavior Therapy have been published till 2009. Among them 10 are case reports. Methodological limitations abound even in the papers on larger groups of patients. Studies using operant conditioning have been very few. Aversion therapy and progressive muscle relaxation have been very frequently used. The published articles are reviewed under the various diagnostic categories. Publications in the recent years have been mostly on Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Even after 57 years of co-existence, the relationship between Behavior Therapy and Indian Psychiatry remains a tenuous one.
  4,387 541 2
Publications on community psychiatry
R Thara, Sushma Rameshkumar, C Greeshma Mohan
September 2010, 52(7):274-277
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69248  PMID:21836693
Care and treatment outside the setting of mental hospitals have been termed community psychiatry. This paper, based largely on publications on this subject in the IJP, discusses work on development of mental health services outside the hospitals, National and District Mental Health Programs, some accounts of Indian families, alternative modes of treatment in communities and a few miscellaneous issues. Very few papers are data driven and most of them are descriptive and opinionated.
  4,126 638 -
A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics
AK Agarwal
September 2010, 52(7):297-305
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69257  PMID:21836698
Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about 'truth serum' in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India.
  4,342 382 1
Learning and other developmental disorders in India
Philip John
September 2010, 52(7):224-228
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69236  PMID:21836682
Articles that include Learning and Developmental Disorders have been gathered from the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP) archives, and are broadly discussed. Learning disorders (LD) are not pure syndromes. They are developmental disorders and are multi-dimensional in nature. Research areas in Child Psychiatry in India remain largely unexplored, especially developmental disorders. The potential for research is mind boggling. Original research must keep pace with work in the west, and must be of a high order. Results must be published in our national journal and not abroad, in order to bestow prestige to our journal, so the world can sit up and take notice.
  4,020 674 -
Indian research on acute organic brain syndrome: Delirium
Charles Pinto
September 2010, 52(7):139-147
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69226  PMID:21836671
Delirium, though quite often referred to psychiatrists for management, does not find many takers for analysis, research and publications. Acute in onset, multiplicity of etiology and manifestations, high risk of mortality delirium is very rewarding in proper management and outcome. Delirium has a limited agenda on teaching programs, research protocols and therapeutic strategies. There is a dearth of Indian studies both in international and national scientific literature. This annotation is based on a Medline search for "delirium India" on Pubmed, which resulted in 54 articles. A search in Indian Journal of Psychiatry for "delirium'' resulted in 38 published articles, "delirium tremens" showed up only five articles. The articles are primarily from the Indian Journal of Psychiatry with cross reference to articles on Pubmed or Google search on Indian studies and a few international studies
  4,059 573 1
Mutual learning and research messages: India, UK, and Europe
Gurvinder Kalra, Dinesh Bhugra
September 2010, 52(7):56-63
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69211  PMID:21836716
India and UK have had a long history together, since the times of the British Raj. Most of what Indian psychiatry is today, finds its roots in ancient Indian texts and medicine systems as much as it is influenced by the European system. Psychiatric research in India is growing. It is being influenced by research in the UK and Europe and is influencing them at the same time. In addition to the sharing of ideas and the know-how, there has also been a good amount of sharing of mental health professionals and research samples in the form of immigrants from India to the UK. The Indian mental health professionals based in UK have done a good amount of research with a focus on these Indian immigrants, giving an insight into cross-cultural aspects of some major psychiatric disorders. This article discusses the impact that research in these countries has had on each other and the contributions that have resulted from it.
  4,088 184 -
Indian research on comorbidities
Ashish Srivastava, K Sreejayan, Anup M Joseph, P. S. V. N. Sharma
September 2010, 52(7):246-249
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69240  PMID:21836686
The objective of this paper is to provide a review on the psychiatric comorbidity research in India based on the data published in the last six decades. The comorbidity data world over reflects that it is a much more common phenomenon than observed in routine clinical practice. In India, research into this domain of psychiatry has been limited, with comorbidity reported to be as high as 60%. In the few publications in this area, most of the authors have looked into substance related comorbidity. Small numbers of studies have looked into comorbid conditions in child psychiatry, especially mental retardation and very few studies have looked at other comorbidities. The landmarks in the studies in the area of psychiatric comorbidity have been highlighted in this review article.
  3,541 555 -
Forensic psychiatry revisited
S Nambi
September 2010, 52(7):306-308
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69258  PMID:21836700
Articles related to Forensic Psychiatry published in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology and Indian Journal of Psychiatry during the last 60 years revisited. During these years, around 50 articles have been published in this subject. Psycho-criminology is the theme dealt with in most of the articles. Highlights of some of the important articles are mentioned.
  3,401 656 -
From local to global - Contributions of Indian psychiatry to international psychiatry
Srinivasa R Murthy
September 2010, 52(7):30-37
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69202  PMID:21836699
Indian psychiatrists have actively engaged with world psychiatry by contributing to understanding and care of persons with mental disorders based on the religious, cultural and social aspects of Indian life. The contributions are significant in the areas of outlining the scope of mental health,classification of mental disorders, understanding the course of mental disorders, psychotherapy, traditional methods of care, role of family in mental health care and care of the mentally ill in the community settings.
  3,508 536 -
Indian psychiatry and classification of psychiatric disorders
KS Jacob
September 2010, 52(7):104-109
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69221  PMID:21836665
The contribution of Indian psychiatry to classification of mental disorders has been limited and restricted to acute and transient psychosis and to possession disorders. There is a need for leadership in research in order to match diagnosis and management strategies to the Indian context and culture.
  3,415 581 -
Indian Psychiatry and Indian Journal of Psychiatry - A journey
T. S. Sathyanarayana Rao, G Swaminath, Prasad G Rao
September 2010, 52(7):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69194  PMID:21836664
  3,579 323 -
Indian research on women and psychiatry
Rakesh K Chadda, Mamta Sood
September 2010, 52(7):229-232
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69237  PMID:21836683
The paper discusses research on various issues related to mental health specific to women, published mainly in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. We carried out a manual search of all the issues of the journal. Indian psychiatrists have worked in a wide range of areas including psychological aspects of different reproductive phases like pregnancy, puerperium, menopause, menstrual cycle, psychological consequences of contraception, infertility and surgical loss of uterus or breast. Most of the studies are cross sectional with very few prospective studies. There is a need for longitudinal, epidemiological and intervention studies.
  3,227 559 -
The evolution of Indian psychiatric research: An examination of the early decades of the Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Chittaranjan Andrade
September 2010, 52(7):19-25
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69199  PMID:21836678
Research in psychiatry has travelled far since the inception of the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP) in 1949. We reviewed publications in the IJP during its initial three decades to identify path breaking articles and trends in research. We present the evolution of research design in the IJP from cases studies to randomized controlled trials. We identify the earliest studies in different fields, ranging from drug trials to social interventions, and from women's mental health to geriatric psychiatry. We consider special issues such as the measurement of psychopathology specific to the Indian context, studies of treatments specific to Indian traditions, epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in India, and innovations in service delivery. Students interested in the history of Indian psychiatric research will be rewarded by the richness and variety of thought evidenced in the publications in the early decades of the IJP.
  3,324 373 -
Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India's contribution
T. S. Sathyanarayana Rao, BN Ramesh, P Vasudevaraju, K. S. J. Rao
September 2010, 52(7):120-127
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69223  PMID:21836667
Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders.
  3,248 384 -
Women psychiatrists in India: A reflection of their contributions
Mamta Sood, Rakesh K Chadda
September 2010, 52(7):396-401
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69277  PMID:21836713
The increasing number of women joining psychiatry is a relatively new phenomenon in the field of medicine. Keeping with the trends world over, the number of women psychiatrists in India has been on the rise over the last two to three decades. The authors searched various volumes of the Indian Journal of Psychiatry, recent membership directories of the Indian Psychiatric Society, website of the Medical Council of India and personal communications for contributions of the women psychiatrists in India. Women psychiatrists have a number of contributions to their credit in India. They have played important roles in the affairs of national professional organizations like the Indian Psychiatric Society and have contributed to the psychiatry education and research. However, they also suffer limitations because of the absence of adequate institutional support and policies looking into their specific needs.
  3,165 371 1
Psyche and soma: New insights into the connection
Rahul Kumar, Vikram K Yeragani
September 2010, 52(7):233-239
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69238  PMID:21836684
The interaction of Psyche and Soma are well known and this interaction happens through a complex network of feedback, medication, and modulation among the central and autonomic nervous systems, the endocrine system, the immune system, and the stress system. These systems, which were previously considered pristinely independent, in fact, interact at myriad levels. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is an emerging discipline that focuses on various interactions among these body systems and provides the underpinnings of a scientific explanation for what is commonly referred to as the mind-body connection. This article reviews the relevant literature with an emphasis on Indian research.
  3,230 258 -
Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India
Shridhar Sharma
September 2010, 52(7):89-94
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69219  PMID:21836724
This review traces the evolution of modern medical education in India on the one hand and the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of postgraduate psychiatric education on the other hand, all in the context of Indian psychiatry. The topic is covered under the headings standard of psychiatric education, the goals, competencies required, impact of psychiatric disorders, relation of medicine to psychiatry, and the directions for the future of postgraduate psychiatric training.
  2,970 390 -
Indian - American contributions to psychiatric research
Anand K Pandurangi
September 2010, 52(7):47-55
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69209  PMID:21836715
The Indian Diaspora, especially in North America, is a visible force in the field of psychiatric medicine. An estimated 5000 persons of Indian origin practice psychiatry in the USA and Canada, and an estimated 10% of these are in academic psychiatry. Wide ranging contributions, from molecular biology of psychiatric disorders to community and cultural psychiatry, are being made by this vibrant group of researchers. This article is a brief summary and work-in-progress report of the contributions by Indian - American psychiatric researchers. Although not exhaustive in coverage, it is meant to give the reader an overview of the contributions made by three waves of researchers over a span of 50 years.
  3,095 160 -
Indian psychiatry: Research and international perspectives
Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Rakesh K Chadda, Juan E Mezzich
September 2010, 52(7):38-42
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69205  PMID:21836710
Indian psychiatry has many contributions to the world psychiatry to its credit. These include active participation in the international scientific organizations, research, and also creation of the manpower resources in many other countries. India has been an active partner in the research initiatives of the World Health Organization and the World Psychiatric Association. Research by the Indian psychiatrists played an important role in recognition of the entity of acute and transient psychotic disorders, some culture bound syndromes like Dhat syndrome and understanding the role of families in care of schizophrenia and course and outcome of schizophrenia.
  2,730 396 -
Psychiatrists and neuroscientists of Indian origin in Canada: Glimpses
Amresh Shrivastava, D Natarajan
September 2010, 52(7):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69213  PMID:21836717
Psychiatrists of Indian origin are popular in Canada, being firmly rooted in the Canadian mental health system, and they have been making considerable contributions internationally. The Indian Psychiatric Society has long been collaborating with and inviting contributions from overseas Indian psychiatrists, particularly those in academics, and this collaboration has fructified well. There are several different challenges these psychiatrists have had to face in their own specialty work, with having to adjust to a new culture, new ways of living, and new ways of work. Our colleagues of Indian origin have demonstrated excellence in almost all fields of mental health and neurosciences. There are many popular teachers, outstanding researchers, and psychiatrists in community practice and community development. The Early Psychosis Program, Mood and Anxiety Program, Perinatal Psychiatry, Women's Mental Health, and Postpartum Mental Health are some of their key areas of research. Our basic scientists are involved in experimental design, neurochemistry, imaging, and genetics, where they have made their mark with acclaim. This article highlights some of the achievements of a few members and is by no means completely representative of the entire work that psychiatrists of Indian origin are doing in Canada, providing readers with a glimpse of our labors away from home.
  2,882 107 -
Research on mood stabilizers in India
Ajit Avasthi, Sandeep Grover, Munish Aggarwal
September 2010, 52(7):355-361
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69265  PMID:21836705
Mood stabilizers have revolutionized the treatment of bipolar affective disorders. We review data originating from India in the form of efficacy, effectiveness, usefulness, safety and tolerability of mood stabilizers. Data is mainly available for the usefulness and side-effects of lithium. A few studies in recent times have evaluated the usefulness of carbamazepine, valproate, atypical antipsychotics and verapamil. Occasional studies have compared two mood stabilizers. Data for long term efficacy and safety is conspicuously lacking.
  2,487 408 -
Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries
JK Trivedi, Pawan Kumar Gupta, Rahul Saha
September 2010, 52(7):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69214  PMID:21836718
Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world's population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, 'One vision, one identity, one community,' was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa.
  2,525 273 -
Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry
Amresh Shrivatava
September 2010, 52(7):110-119
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69222  PMID:21836666
Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of 'brain-mind and behavior'. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision and effective utilization of contemporary technological advances. It is a matter of great pride to see that in spite of difficult times in terms of challenges of practice and services, administration, resource, funding and manpower the zest for research was very forthcoming. There was neither dedicated time nor any funding for conducting research. It came from the intellectual insight of our fore fathers in the field of mental health to gradually grow to the state of strategic education in research, training in research, international research collaborations and setting up of internationally accredited centers. During difficult economic conditions in the past, the hypothesis tested and conclusions derived have not been so important. It is more important how it was done, how it was made possible and how robust traditions were established. Almost an entire spectrum of biological research has been touched upon by Indian researchers. Some of these are electroconvulsive therapy, biological markers, neurocognition, neuroimaging, neuroendocrine, neurochemistry, electrophysiology and genetics. A lot has been published given the limited space in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry and other medical journals published in India. A large body of biological research conducted on Indian patients has also been published in International literature (which I prefer to call non-Indian journals). Newer research questions in biological psychiatry, keeping with trend of international standards are currently being investigated by the younger generation with great enthusiasm. What we have achieved so far is the foundation work in last 60 years. Our main challenge in development of biological psychiatry research in India remains resources in terms of manpower, funding and dedicated time for research psychiatrists. Developing basic sciences laboratories, discrete research questions, high quality methodology, and logistical support are some of the essentials. In the present time the culture of research has changed. It is specific and evidence-based. We have time-tested examples of International collaborative research. We need to get more resources, develop education, collaboration and effective leadership. In times to come, India will provide international leadership in basic and clinical biological psychiatry. There is hope.
  2,533 254 -
Military psychiatry in India
H. R. A. Prabhu
September 2010, 52(7):314-316
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69260  PMID:21836702
Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties and services, are likely to be under stress which at times has no parallel in civilian life. The stress of combat and service in extreme weather conditions often act as major stressors. The modern practices in military psychiatry had their beginning during the two World Wars, more particularly, the II nd World War. The GHPU concept had the beginning in India with military hospitals having such establishments in the care of their clientele. As the nation gained independence, many of the military psychiatrists shifted to the civil stream and contributed immensely in the development of modern psychiatry in India. In the recent years military psychiatry has been given the status of a subspecialty chapter and the military psychiatrists have been regularly organizing CMEs and training programs for their members to prepare them to function in the special role of military psychiatrists.
  2,550 223 -
Research priorities for Indian psychiatry
Vikram Patel
September 2010, 52(7):26-29
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69201  PMID:21836689
This article summarises the findings of recent priority setting exercises for psychiatric research and of a mapping of research capacity and resources in south Asia. The priorities for research in the region, as in other developing countries, are related to 'implementation' science, i.e. the field of inquiry investigating acceptable and affordable methods of delivering effective treatments for mental disorders, which aims to help close the large treatment gap. "Discovery" research which aims to strengthen our understanding of the nature of mental disorders through well-designed epidemiological and descriptive clinical studies, and expand the armamentarium of effective treatments by mapping and evaluating indigenous approaches to mental health care is also an important priority. However, research capacity and resources in the region are scarce and need strengthening by action from diverse stakeholders including the Indian Psychiatric Society.
  2,463 286 1
Liaison psychiatry and Indian research
SR Parkar, NS Sawant
September 2010, 52(7):386-388
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69274  PMID:21836711
Liaison in Psychiatry refers to the branch of Psychiatry involving assessment and treatment in the general hospital of referred patients, like in the casualty, or patients of deliberate self farm. The Indian scene also reveals major reference from medicine, surgery, surgical super specialty and orthopedics with psychiatric disorders like anxiety, depression and / or organic brain syndromes seen in about 40 to 50 % of the medical or surgical patients. Though the Indian published data is limited, most tertiary hospitals in India carry out liaison work with various departments like Neurology, Organ transplant, Intensive Care Units and Cosmetic Surgery, so as to give comprehensive health services to patients. Liaison in Psychiatry has thus brought the emphasis on the teaching of psycho-social aspects of medicine and also increased research possibilities.
  2,331 369 1
Indian psychiatry and research in Pakistan
Haroon Rashid Chaudhry
September 2010, 52(7):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69215  PMID:21836720
In Asian culture, there is much stigmatization attached on having mental health problems and seeking help from a mental health expert. It is therefore, not surprising, that this stigmatization results in the refutation of the subsistence of a psychiatric problem in an individual and his family but also produces obstruction to help-seeking desires. To get a clear picture of the existence of psychiatric issues in the population, various research projects addressing psychiatric issues in children, women, and elderly are conducted both in Pakistan and India. A significant input has been taken from research conducted in India combating disaster management. In addition, public awareness programs are organized to provide information about common psychiatric disorders in children, adults, women, and the elderly. Furthermore, psychiatric patients and their families are educated for the management of mental heath problems related to marriage, pregnancy, birth and hazards of smoking & substance abuse in young adults. Keeping in view the similarity in cultural background, treatment models, family structure, and psychosocial factors, collaborative research studies should be encouraged leading to improvement in psychiatric care of the patients both in India and Pakistan.
  2,538 148 1
Contribution of Indian psychiatry in the development of psychiatry in Nepal
Tapas Kumar Aich
September 2010, 52(7):76-79
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69216  PMID:21836721
Psychiatric services remained virtually unknown in Nepal until 1961. The first psychiatric outpatient service was started in 1961, at Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. In 1984, the Psychiatry Department at Bir Hospital was separated and a mental hospital was created, which was later shifted to its current location at Lagankhel, Patan, in Kathmandu valley, in 1985. It is the only mental hospital in Nepal with a current bed strength of 50 beds. The new era in medical learning and teaching was ushered in Nepal with the establishment of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) under the Tribhuban University and the 400-bed Tribhuban University-Teaching Hospital (TU-Teaching Hospital), in the year 1983. BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) at Dharan was established in 1993, as a part of the joint Indo-Nepal collaboration on developing an international standard teaching, training, and research-oriented medical institute similar to AIIMS, New Delhi. During the last one-and-half decades a number of privately run medical colleges have come up in Nepal. Outpatient and inpatient Psychiatry Departments have been established in most of these government as well as private medical institutes. At present, the postgraduate course (MD) in psychiatry has been running in two government-run institutes as well as three privately run medical colleges. Indian psychiatrists have played and are still playing significant roles in establishing as well as maintaining Psychiatry Departments, especially in the private sector medical colleges. They have also contributed to the growth of psychiatry research and postgraduate teaching in psychiatry, in Nepal.
  2,547 124 -
Biological investigations in Indian psychiatry
Rishikesh V Behere, Naren P Rao, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
September 2010, 52(7):136-138
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69225  PMID:21836670
The biological basis of psychiatric disorders has been the focus of research in various studies across the world including India. In this selective overview we summarize findings of various EEG, neuro-imaging and blood related studies that have been reported in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry.
  1,964 274 -
Partnerships for promoting dissemination of mental health research globally
Helen Herrman
September 2010, 52(7):43-46
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69207  PMID:21836714
Low-and middle-income countries (LAMIC), with more than 80% of the global population, bear the greatest burden of mental disorders. Yet these countries are very under-represented in published psychiatric research. There are barriers to publication of mental health research from LAMIC and to the representation of research from these countries in the main literature databases worldwide. The World Psychiatric Association (WPA) aimed to help investigate the reasons for the under-representation of LAMIC in published psychiatric research and consider how to support improved research dissemination, relevant for better mental health and mental health care in all countries. As part of its work plan for the years 2008 to 2011, WPA developed a project to encourage efforts to offer support to psychiatric journals in LAMIC. A WPA publications taskforce was appointed in 2008 to promote the dissemination of research from LAMIC. The taskforce began work together with journal editors to strengthen their chances of being indexed in international databases. Among the first journals participating in the project was the IJP, which is now an inspiration and source of support for other journals.
  2,086 144 -
Shared challenges in psychiatric research in India and Sri Lanka
Harischandra Gambheera, Shehan Williams
September 2010, 52(7):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.69217  PMID:21836722
The need for good research in psychiatry has never been more important than in this era of 'Evidence-based medicine' (EBM).[1] The countries in south Asia have to rise to the challenge and abandon the emphasis placed on 'Experience-based medicine', as was popular in the traditional systems of medicine - the art was handed down from father to son or guru to shishya (student). Evidence-based medicine does not abandon clinician experience, skills, and judgment, but rather complements it with the best available evidence and patient choice.[2] This article explores the challenges in obtaining the best available evidence in the south Asian context.
  1,773 118 -